What do you need to know to properly care for and feed your horse in the cold winter months? Horses are very adaptable to a wide range of temperatures and are well-suited to living in cold climates.

However, you may need to adjust your feeding and management practices when the weather turns cold to keep up with your horse’s higher calorie demands.

Horses that are overwintered outdoors will need to consume more feed so they can maintain their core temperature without losing body condition.

Generally, the digestible energy requirement for a 500 kg (1100 lb) horse increases by 2.5% of every degree below -15oC (5oF). [1]

Increasing access to forage, feeding gut-friendly calorie sources and providing access to adequate shelter and warm water are key aspects of feeding and managing horses in winter.

Here we will review how to feed horses in winter, taking into consideration their body condition, age, and management practices. For help with optimizing your horse’s winter feeding program, submit your horse’s diet for evaluation by our equine nutritionists.

Thermoregulation in Horses

Like all mammals, horses are homeotherms (warm-blooded) meaning they maintain their core body temperature within a narrow limit independent of changes in the ambient temperature.

When temperatures in the environment fall below a lower critical temperature (LCT) the horse will need to expend more calories to keep warm.

For a 500 kg mature horse, the LCT is approximately -15oC or 5oF. Below this temperature, they will need to increase their metabolic rate (burn more calories) to sustain their core body temperature.

These extra calories can come from increased hay and feed intake or metabolizing fat stores.

Note that each individual horse’s LCT will vary depending on several animal and environmental factors including:

  • Body condition and size
  • Age
  • Health status
  • Reproductive status
  • Coat condition
  • Genetics
  • Shelter availability
  • Blanketing

How Horses Maintain Body Temperature

There are many physiological mechanisms that horses use to maintain temperature homeostasis, or a stable core body temperature.

For example, horses sweat to dissipate excess heat when it is hot. When it is cold, the following mechanisms can help to preserve or generate heat:

  • Shivering
  • Increasing metabolic rate
  • Changing behaviour
  • Growing a thicker winter coat

If your horse’s core body temperature drops below 33 – 34oC, mental and physiological functions will be affected.

In extreme cases, poor adaptation to prolonged cold weather exposure can cause severe hypothermia which could result in heart failure. Fortunately, these extremes are unlikely to happen in typical climates and modern management situations. [2]

Cold Weather Adaptations

Horses, like all mammals, have special receptors in their skin and core that sense temperature called thermoreceptors.

During acute, short-term exposure to cold there are several mechanisms that horses can use to maintain body temperature, including:

  • Vasoconstriction: reduced blood flow to the skin and extremities reduces heat loss
  • Piloerection: raising hairs to trap air close to the skin to provide insulation
  • Shivering: involuntary muscle contraction for the sole purpose of generating heat

There may also be changes in behaviour as horses sense the colder temperature including huddling with others, finding shelter, standing downwind, and increasing activity level such as by running and playing.

If exposure to colder temperatures persists, further adaptations come into play to help the horse stay warm, including:

  • Increased appetite and food intake
  • Growth of a dense hair coat for insulation

How effectively horses adapt to prolonged exposure to colder temperatures can be influenced by the management of horses, including their feeding program and proper provision of shelter.

Inadequate management of horses in wintertime can lead to excessive loss of body condition, causing your horse to become underweight. This can put them at risk of health concerns or impact performance in the following season.

How to Feed your Horse in Winter

The changing seasons give horse owners an excellent opportunity to evaluate how well their feeding programs are meeting the needs of their horses.

Most horses naturally follow a different diet in the winter from the warm summer months, with less pasture access in the winter months.

Activity levels, environment, housing situations, and common health concerns can also vary in winter compared to spring, summer and fall.

Below are seven key considerations for establishing an appropriate feeding program for your horse through the winter.

1) Assess Your Horse’s Body Condition

Your horse’s body condition score is a key metric for assessing how the energy supply of the diet is matching his or her calorie requirement.

The BCS scale provides a way to objectively estimate the amount of body fat that your horse has. Body condition assessments should be conducted year-round but especially in the fall and winter.

The ideal body condition is 5 on a 9-point scale. When body condition scoring a horse in winter, be sure to feel your horse’s ribs, neck, and rump. A thick winter coat can hide weight loss.

Overweight or over-conditioned horses have better adipose tissue insulation for cold weather, as well as greater energy reserves to generate heat. These horses likely have a lower LCT and are less likely to require additional calories in their feed to help them maintain their body temperature.

While providing a benefit for cold tolerance, being overweight can have detrimental health effects, including a higher risk of painful and debilitating conditions such as laminitis and osteoarthritis.

Underconditioned horses have less insulation and will be more susceptible to excess heat loss during cold weather. These horses have a higher LCT, meaning they need extra calories to maintain a stable body temperature.

Blanketing underweight horses is useful to help minimize heat loss and keep them comfortable.

2) Identify health concerns

Regular veterinary checkups can help you identify potential health issues before they become bigger concerns. In particular, if you notice a decrease in body condition, look out for possible contributing factors including:

  • Dental health issues such as EOTRH
  • Metabolic disorders such as Cushing’s / PPID
  • Gastrointestinal disorders
  • Endoparasitism
  • Social and behavioural issues

Senior horses are particularly susceptible to being under-conditioned during the winter months. Ageing affects metabolic processes and gut microbial diversity, which can contribute to decreased body condition. [3]

Dental issues and metabolic disorders are also more prevalent in older horses and may impair their ability to maintain adequate body condition.

3) Estimate Lower Critical Temperature

It is important to be aware of your horse’s Lower Critical Temperature (LCT) and to increase the calories supplied by the diet when temperatures fall below this number.

On average, healthy adult horses of normal body condition that have been acclimatized gradually to winter temperatures have an LCT of around -15oC / 5oF.

Young, growing horses are more sensitive to cold temperatures and have a higher LCT. [1] The following LCTs are estimated for newborn foals and yearlings:

  • Yearling fed free-choice: LCT of -11oC / 12oF
  • Yearling that is limit fed: LCT of 0oC / 32oF
  • Newborn foal: LCT of 20oC / 68oF

The required digestible energy (DE) intake for a healthy adult horse to maintain its current weight increases by 2.5% per degree Celsius decrease below the LCT.

For example, a typical adult horse will require 12.5% more calories at -20oC, which is -5oC below the LCT.

For healthy growing yearlings, the energy requirement increases by 1.3% per degree Celsius decrease below the LCT. [1] At -20oC, a yearling that is fed free-choice will require 11.7% more calories.

Note that these numbers are only approximations. Every horse is an individual and should be fed as such. There is great variation within breeds with regard to the LCT.

For example, an overweight horse with a thick coat that lives outside over winter with a field shelter may have a lower LCT in comparison to a clipped warmblood horse that is stabled all year round and in moderate work.

Regularly assessing your horse’s weight and body condition score will help you determine whether your horse is receiving enough energy to maintain its weight in colder temperatures.

4) Feed to Meet their Energy Demands

Forage

A forage-based diet is the best way to feed your horse, supporting the health of the digestive tract and helping to avoid issues such as obesity, insulin resistance and laminitis.

Forages including hay, haylage, silage, pellets/cubes and straw are all suitable options for horses. Ideally, forages should be chosen to match the horse’s individual needs.

Obtaining a hay analysis will give you greater insight into the nutritional quality of the hay you are feeding and help you identify potential gaps in your horse’s diet.

Horses that need to gain weight or that are in heavy work can be fed high-quality legume-rich hay. However, this hay is likely too nutrient-dense for an easy keeper at maintenance.

Throughout winter, horses should consume forage at 1.5-3% of their body weight. Offering free-choice forage at all times is preferable when possible.

Feeding your horse a diet with forage as the main component helps to promote a species-appropriate lifestyle and supports health in the following ways:

Feeding forage also helps maintain body temperature in winter through internal heat production.

Forage is primarily digested by microbes in the hindgut which produces volatile fatty acids (VFAs) that the horse absorbs for energy. Microbial VFA production also produces heat as a by-product, promoting a stable body temperature in colder weather.

Non-fibre carbohydrates (such as sugars and starches), as well as fats, are not fermented by microbes in the gut and do not directly produce heat during the digestive process. However, they do provide calories to support metabolic heat production. [4]

Other Energy Sources

In addition to forage, there are several other feeds that can be added to your horse’s diet to provide calories in a gut-friendly manner.

In conventional equine diets, grains are commonly added to meet excess calorie needs. However, high-grain diets are known to contribute to a wide range of issues: [7]

Instead of relying on high-starch grains for added energy, consider the following options:

  • Beet pulp: A highly-digestible fibre source with lower NSC content. Using beet pulp shreds that can be soaked in hot water for a short period of time before feeding might be preferable in wintertime compared to other forms that require prolonged soaking.
  • Soy hulls: A highly-digestible fibre source that acts as a prebiotic for hindgut microbes. Soaking can also help to soften these pellets and promote palatability as well as hydration.
  • Rice bran: A highly digestible source of fat for energy density. Rice bran is high in the mineral phosphorus, which needs to be balanced with calcium in the total diet.
  • Oils: Fat sources like supplemental oils provide more than twice the calories per gram compared to carbohydrates. Oils that are high in omega-3 fatty acids provide additional benefits for supporting joint health, cardiovascular function and anti-inflammatory support.
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5) Provide Free-Choice Access to Water at All Times

Hydration is most commonly a concern for horse owners in the hot, sweaty summer months. But horse owners also need to be aware of how much water their horse is drinking when temperatures are cold.

Horses typically consume 5-10 gallons (18 – 36 L) of water per day. However, research shows that horses drink up to 14% less water in winter than they do during the warmer months of the year.

In conjunction with reduced movement from being stabled, this decrease in water intake greatly increases the risk of impaction colic. [5] [6]

It is essential that your horse remains well hydrated throughout winter. Water is involved indirectly in all physiological processes and supports gut motility.

Horses given warmed water (water buckets topped up with hot water twice daily), drank 40% more water than horses whose buckets were near freezing.

Water buckets can be heated by adding hot water or with water heaters throughout winter to encourage drinking [5]

Water buckets and troughs should be checked at a minimum twice daily during winter to ensure they have not frozen over. Insulating troughs and automatic water filler pipes can help prevent freezing.

Providing warm, soaked feeds, such as soaked beet pulp or forage pellets will also increase your horse’s water intake.

Feeding loose salt is an easy way to encourage your horse to drink more water. [8] Salt increases their sodium intake which triggers thirst and encourages hydration.

A 500 kg (1100 lb) horse should be given 15 – 30 grams of loose salt (1-2 tablespoons) per day and provided free-choice access to loose salt.

6) Ensure vitamin and mineral requirements are met

Vitamins and minerals are critical nutrients for supporting metabolic processes that are carried out by enzymes in the body.

If your horse is burning more calories to maintain body temperature in the cold winter, he or she will have a higher metabolic rate. This can result in higher requirements for vitamins and minerals.

Forage alone will not meet your horse’s vitamin and mineral requirements. In wintertime, deficiencies are more common because certain nutrients (like Vitamin E) degrade quickly in cut hay.

Some of the key nutrients that are required to support horses in cold weather include:

  • Zinc, copper, selenium and vitamin E: These are antioxidants that neutralize damaging free radicals produced when calories are burned for energy
  • B-vitamins: These vitamins are co-factors for many enzymes that carry out metabolic reactions
  • Amino acids: Limiting amino acids such as lysine are often included in ration balancers because they are required to make the enzymes (proteins) that carry out metabolic processes

Mad Barn’s Omneity is a comprehensive equine vitamin and mineral supplement that provides complete coverage of common vitamin and mineral deficiencies in the equine diet.

It provides high levels of vitamin E, a full B-vitamin profile as well as added amino acids and 100% organic trace minerals for better absorption and utilization by the body.

Omneity is designed to balance the majority of forages and grain-based diets in North America.

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7) Support Gut Health

Most horses are stabled in winter with reduced or no access to grass pasture.

Horses that are stabled may go long periods of time between feedings without forage. They may also be fed more concentrates to help prevent weight loss as the temperature decreases.

Reduced turnout, intermittent feeding and increased feeding of concentrates are all risk factors for gut issues including gastric ulcers and hindgut dysbiosis.

For these reasons, it is important to pay special attention to your horse’s gut health during the winter. If your horse shows signs of common gut problems, you may need to make adjustments to your feeding plan.

Gastric Ulcers

Increased stabling in winter is associated with higher stress levels, limited forage, restricted movement, and limited social contact with other horses. These factors increase the risk of developing equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS).

In one study of 30 horses, within 14 days of being stabled and fed high levels of concentrates (6 kg per day), all horses developed gastric ulcers. [9]

To decrease the risk of EGUS, horses should be allowed access to forage at all times. For overweight horses, hay can be soaked to reduce energy density or low-calorie straw can be used instead.

Feeding of concentrates should be avoided and stress levels should be kept to a minimum wherever possible. [9]

If your horse is at high risk of gastric ulcers, consider adding Visceral+ to support digestive health. Visceral+ is a clinically tested gut health supplement designed to support intestinal barrier function and the immune system.

Visceral+ contains ingredients such as lecithin and glutamine to support the foregut as well as prebiotics, probiotics and yeast to support hindgut health.

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Hindgut Health

Limited turnout during the winter months and decreased water intake can also contribute to hindgut complications such as impaction colic and dysbiosis.

Transitioning horses from grazing on pasture to eating hay is also associated with the potential for gut problems, such as diarrhea. Any time that your horse’s feeding program changes, the microbiome may be affected.

Feeding a probiotic may help to support digestion, fibre fermentation and overall hindgut health. [10][11]

Mad Barn’s Optimum Probiotic is a 5-strain microbial blend that provides 20 billion viable colony forming units (CFUs) per serving.

Our Optimum Digestive Health supplement also contains prebiotics, yeast, enzymes and a proprietary blend of nucleotides for horses that require additional support for hindgut digestion.

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Housing and Management Considerations

In addition to feeding practices, housing and management factors should also be examined in preparation for winter to ensure your horse is as comfortable as possible.

Shelter

Even for healthy horses acclimatized to cold weather, it is important to provide shelter for the winter months. Although horses can survive in temperatures well below the LCT, rain and wind can rapidly decrease body temperature through conduction and convection.

One study found acclimatized Icelandic ponies spent 70% of their time outdoors at -31oC, only moving indoors during wind and rain. [2]

Interestingly, shelter design has a major impact on whether horses will choose to seek out shelter during cold temperatures. One study from Denmark found that horses were more likely to use shelters with two entrances compared to one.

Horses that had access to a shelter with two entrances also had lower levels of the stress hormone cortisol detected in their feces, suggesting reduced stress. [12]

Horses need to be able to access their food and water source even when using their shelter during adverse weather conditions. Consider having two water sources and feed stations during winter, both inside and outside the shelter.

Blanketing

Many horse owners choose to blanket their horses when ambient temperatures fall below a comfortable range.

In a survey of horse owners in Nordic countries, 80% stated they blanket their horses on turnout with the majority choosing to start when temperatures reach 10oC / 50oF. [13]

However, what humans perceive as cold weather differs greatly from what horses experience. Horses seem to have a higher tolerance for cold between 10oC and -10oC.

In a study that assessed horses’ preference for blanketing, horses used symbols to communicate their preference. At temperatures below -10oC / 14oF, 80-90% of horses chose to wear the blankets.

When the temperature was between -10oC to 0oC (14oF to 32oF), preference for blanketing was influenced by other factors including wind and rain. At temperatures above 10oC / 50oF, the majority of horses preferred to be without blankets. [14]

This research indicates that the comfort level of horses in cold weather may differ from our perceptions of their comfort. Their preference for blanketing is affected not only by temperature but also by rain and wind speed. This study found no differences between warmbloods and coldbloods in blanketing preferences.

It is advisable to blanket horses when temperatures drop below -10oC / 14oF and to take into account wind and rain when choosing to blanket at warmer temperatures.

Note that blanketing impacts the horse’s dietary energy requirements through winter as they will need to burn less calories to maintain their body temperature.

A study compared blanketed versus nonblanketed horses in the US Midwest (Wisconsin). Dry matter intake of free-choice hay differed between the groups. Blanketed horses consumed 2.31% of BW whereas nonblanketed horses consumed 2.51% of BW, representing an 8% difference in hay intake. [19]

Considering a 500 kg horse, this difference represents 1 kg less of hay per day (on a dry matter basis) when blanketed. Assuming the hay has a digestible energy content of 2 Mcal/kg, that is equivalent to 2 Mcal per day. To put that into context, a horse at maintenance requires 16.6 Mcal of digestible energy per day.

Enrichment

Horses are trickle feeders that evolved to graze for up to 16-hours per day. However, domestic management practices like stabling during the winter can limit the natural expression of foraging behaviours.

Horses that do not have near-constant access to forage are at higher risk of developing stereotypic behaviour and health concerns such as gastric ulcers and colic.

Enrichment tools and activities can help extend feeding times and promote natural foraging behaviour, both in and out of the stable. Some examples of enrichment ideas include: [15] [16]

  • Hay nets or hay balls
  • Treat balls (containing treats or high fibre pellets)
  • Hanging fruit or vegetable ropes, including apple, carrot, rutabaga, parsnip
  • Forage hung from different places and at different heights
  • Feeding different types of forage, such as hay, soaked pellets, dry pellets, and chaff

Enrichment activities can also be non-food related, such as providing self-grooming items and other novel items in your horse’s environment that engage their curiosity.

Winter Feeding Programs

Wondering what specifically you should be feeding your horse in winter? The following sample feeding plans are based on the needs of a typical healthy 500 kg mature horse at maintenance.

Our equine nutritionists are happy to help formulate a diet plan specific to the needs of your horse. Submit your horse’s diet online and our nutritionists can help you design a balanced feeding program that will meet your horse’s nutrient requirements and help them maintain their condition through winter.

Maintaining body condition

For horses entering winter in ideal body condition, free-choice hay is often sufficient to meet their calorie requirements. Rationing hay might even be required if it is of high-quality to limit gain in condition.

It is always recommended to submit a hay sample for analysis to understand how it is meeting your horse’s needs.

High-quality hay can be diluted by a lower-quality source or straw. Conversely, if you are feeding low-quality hay, adding forage cubes and oil is a good way to boost the calorie supply.

Winter Maintenance Diet

Feed Diet
(Amount / Day)
Hay (Mid-Quality) Free-choice
Omneity Pellets 200 grams (2 scoops)
Optimum Probiotics 1 gram (1 scoop)
Salt 30 grams (2 tbsps)
Diet Analysis
Digestible Energy (% Req) 104%
Crude Protein (% Req) 138%
NSC (% Diet) 8.9%

 

Older horses and winter

Older horses over 20 years of age generally have less tolerance to the cold. This means that senior horses may require more forage to maintain their body temperature and weight.

Senior horses may also require a field shelter if not stabled and may need to wear a blanket. [1]

If your older horse struggles to eat long fibrous forage, they may prefer soaked forage pellets as a partial or total forage replacer.

Ensure your veterinarian performs regular dental health checks, particularly in older or underweight horses.

Soaking pellets will also ensure that your horse drinks enough water. Oil can be added to soaked pellets for weight gain if required. [17]

Senior Winter Diet

Feed Diet
(Amount / Day)
Hay Free-choice
Beet pulp shreds (soaked) 1 kg (~2 lb)
Alfalfa-timothy cubes (soaked) 5 kg (11 lb)
w-3 oil 100 ml (3 oz)
Omneity Premix 120 grams (4 scoops)
Optimum Digestive Health 80 grams (1 scoop)
Salt 30 grams (2 tbsps)
Diet Analysis
Digestible Energy (% Req) 136%
Crude Protein (% Req) 182%
NSC (% Diet) 5.1%

 

Overweight Horses

It is natural for feral horses to lose some body fat during the winter months when food is sparse and energy is expended to maintain body temperature.

Feral horses naturally regain weight over the spring and summer months so they are ready for the following winter. [18]

Horses that are overweight or prone to being over-conditioned should be allowed to lose some weight over winter. With a well-designed weight loss diet, the ribs should just be visible by the time spring arrives.

This can be achieved by not blanketing or blanketing less throughout the winter. This will cause your horse to expend more energy to maintain their core temperature, helping them shed excess body fat.

Weight and body condition scores should be assessed weekly and recorded to track the change over time.

Winter Weight Loss Diet

Feed Diet
(Amount / Day)
Hay ~ 9 kg (20 lb)
Omneity Pellets 200 grams (2 scoops)
Optimum Probiotics 1 gram (1 scoop)
Salt 30 grams (2 tbsps)
Diet Analysis
Digestible Energy (% Req) 94%
Crude Protein (% Req) 126%
NSC (% Diet) 8.8%

 

Underweight Horses

Horses that struggle to maintain their ideal weight during winter should be allowed to gain some weight during the Spring and Summer months in preparation for winter. These horses are typically blanketed and stabled over winter.

To help with weight gain, horses should be fed good quality forage at 3% body weight, alongside other fibre sources such as beet pulp shreds, and supplemental oil for added calories.

Suitable oils include W-3 oil, linseed (flax) oil, soybean oil, rice bran oil, camelina oil, and canola oil.

A digestive health supplement, such as Optimum Digestive Health, can also be fed to improve fibre digestibility and feed efficiency.

Winter Weight Gain Diet

Feed Diet
(Amount / Day)
Hay Free-choice
Beet pulp shreds (soaked) 1 kg (~2 lb)
w-3 oil 150 ml (5 oz)
Omneity Premix 120 grams (4 scoops)
Optimum Digestive Health 80 grams (1 scoop)
Salt 30 grams (2 tbsps)
Diet Analysis
Digestible Energy (% Req) 130%
Crude Protein (% Req) 157%
NSC (% Diet) 9%

 

Key Points for Winter Feeding

  1. Feed plenty of forage (1.5-3% of body weight depending on body condition)
  2. Ensure your horse drinks plenty of water (warm water and feeding salt encourage drinking)
  3. Feed oil, beet pulp and warm soaked forage pellets for horses that need to gain weight or have poor dentition
  4. Body condition score weekly to track and measure changes in fat composition
  5. Use enrichment tools like hay nets to extend eating time and prevent boredom

Horses are well-suited to life in cold climates. Fibre fermentation in the hindgut produces heat and horses can grow thick, insulative coats.

As long as adequate forage, water and shelter are provided, the majority of horses do well living outside over winter. However, all horses are individuals and should be assessed according to their needs with regard to winter feeding and management.

All horses, whether stabled or living outside, should be body condition scored weekly throughout winter to ensure they are receiving the appropriate amount of calories in the diet. Care should also be taken to monitor water intake throughout winter.

Horses stabled over winter are at increased risk of stereotypic behaviours, gastric ulcers, and colic.

Horses that are stabled may need additional support to reduce stress and support gut health to minimize the risk of adverse conditions developing during the winter months.

Giving your horse the correct nutrition throughout the winter will help ensure they enter spring looking and feeling their best.

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References

  1. Cymbaluk, N.F. Thermoregulation of horses in cold, winter weather: a review.. Livest Prod Sci. 1994.
  2. Mejdell, C.M. et al. Caring for the horse in a cold climate—Reviewing principles for thermoregulation and horse preferences. Appl Anim Behav Sci. 2020.
  3. Dougal, K. et al. Characterisation of the Faecal Bacterial Community in Adult and Elderly Horses Fed a High Fibre, High Oil or High Starch Diet Using 454 Pyrosequencing. PLoS One. 2014.
  4. Al Jassim, R.A. and Andrews, F.M. The bacterial community of the horse gastrointestinal tract and its relation to fermentative acidosis, laminitis, colic, and stomach ulcers. Vet Clin: Equine Pract. 2009.
  5. Kristula, M.A. and McDonnell, S.M. Drinking water temperature affects consumption of water during cold weather in ponies. Appl Anim Behav Sci. 1994.
  6. White II, N.A. and Dabareiner, R.M. Treatment of impaction colics. Vet Clin North Am: Equine Pract. 1997.
  7. King, C. and Mansmann, R.A. Preventing laminitis in horses: dietary strategies for horse owners. Clin Tech Equine Pract. 2004.
  8. Coenen, M. Exercise and stress: impact on adaptive processes involving water and electrolytes. Livest Prod Sci. 2005.
  9. Vatistas, N.J. et al. Induction and maintenance of gastric ulceration in horses in simulated race training. Equine Vet J. 1999.
  10. Garber, A. et al. Factors Influencing Equine Gut Microbiota: Current Knowledge. J Equine Vet Sci. 2020.
  11. Weese, J.S. Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Symbiotic. J Equine Vet Sci. 2002.
  12. Christensen, J.W. et al. The effect of shelter design on shelter use by Icelandic horses in the winter period. J Vet Behav. 2018.
  13. Hartmann, E. et al. Management of horses with focus on blanketing and clipping practices reported by members of the Swedish and Norwegian equestrian community. J Anim Sci. 2017.
  14. Mejdell, C.M. et al. The effect of weather conditions on the preference in horses for wearing blankets. Appl Anim Behav Sci. 2019.
  15. Goodwin, D. et al. Foraging enrichment for stabled horses: effects on behaviour and selection. Equine Vet J. 2002.
  16. Thorne, J.B. et al. Foraging enrichment for individually housed horses: Practicality and effects on behaviour. Appl Anim Behav Sci. 2005.
  17. Ralston, S.L. Care for the Older Horse: Diet and Health. Recent Adv Equine Nutr. 2001.
  18. Brabender, K. et al. Seasonal Changes in Body Condition of Przewalski’s Horses in a Seminatural Habitat. J Equine Vet Sci. 2016.
  19. DeBoer, M. et al. Dry Matter Intake, Body Weight, and Body Condition Scores of Blanketed and Nonblanketed Horses in the Upper Midwest. J Equine Vet Sci. 2020.