Diarrhea is a common problem in horses as it can be a result of many different causes. [1] It is typically a sign of of disrupted function or motility of the hindgut, including dysbiosis or infection.

Diarrhea is defined as the excessive and frequent defecation of loose or liquid stool. It can rapidly result in imbalanced electrolyte levels due to extensive sections of the hindgut that have impaired absorption and/or increased secretion of water into the gut.

Equine diarrhea is a symptom and not a disease in and of itself. It is a sign that something is wrong. However, the cause of diarrhea goes undiagnosed in up to 50% of cases.

Defining Diarrhea in Horses

Horses have a unique and complex digestive system. Diarrhea in adult horses most commonly results from dysfunction in the hindgut rather than the stomach or small intestines. In comparison, foal diarrhea can arise from stomach or small intestinal disorders.

Equine diarrhea can present differently with various levels of stool softness and water excretion, ranging from non-formed (cow-pat) stools to liquid defecation.

The fecal excretion can be projectile or involuntary leakage down the hind legs. The latter could even result in skin scalding. It often gives off an offensive smell.

Acute VS Chronic Diarrhea

Diarrhea can be classified as acute or chronic. Acute diarrhea occurs suddenly, it may be transient and resolve itself or become prolonged and chronic.

Acute diarrhea

Acute diarrhea lasts less than two weeks and is often resolved independently. Often, diarrhea is transient and resolves itself within a few days or even a single bowel movement. An example of transient or isolated diarrhea is horses who develop diarrhea when shipped or away from home at competitions. This is caused by epinephrine (adrenalin) accelerating gut transit time.

Acute diarrhea may not require medical attention if it resolves in a day or two, although you may need to adjust their diet to ensure proper hydration and to prevent nutrient loss. [17]

Although it often resolves itself, there is potential for rapid dehydration. In some cases, diarrhea can be associated with endotoxemia (toxins in the blood) or laminitis.

Inform your veterinarian if your horse develops diarrhea, especially if the horse experiences:

  • Projectile liquid diarrhea
  • Loss of appetite
  • Elevated pulse (heart rate)
  • Elevated temperature
  • Signs of abdominal pain
  • Discolored mucus membranes such as the gums

Acute diarrhea is more likely to be infectious and require medical attention. [25]

Chronic diarrhea

Persistent diarrhea lasts two to four weeks. Chronic diarrhea is present for more than four weeks. [24] This type of diarrhea often requires medical attention from a veterinarian. Hydration, protein, and salt should be increased for horses with chronic diarrhea. [17]

In prolonged cases of diarrhea, the root cause is usually treatable. However, untreated diarrhea with excessive water loss can be accompanied by serious complications such as colic, dehydration, loss of condition, hypoproteinemia (low blood protein), edema, and electrolyte disturbances.

Diarrhea does not have to be present daily for four weeks to be considered chronic. It may come and go over the four (plus) weeks.

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Consequences of Diarrhea

Diarrhea in itself is considered a messy and unpleasant problem for the horse owner. However, many complications can also arise due to frequent diarrhea in your horse.

Direct consequences of equine diarrhea can include: [1]

  • Water loss and dehydration
  • Pain and discomfort in the abdomen and anal region
  • Reduced nutrient absorption
  • Nutrient deficiencies
  • Loss of proteins
  • Reduced appetite
  • Poor performance or low energy

Although rare, in extreme cases diarrhea can be fatal if not managed properly or if the underlying condition is not treated. Foals in particular are at high risk of complications and adult horses with infectious diarrhea are more ill than with other types.

Determining the cause of your horse’s diarrhea episodes can help reduce and prevent incidences. Here we briefly review 25 potential scenarios where your horse could have diarrhea.

25 Reasons Your Horse May Have Diarrhea

Horses can develop diarrhea for a number of different reasons. The most commonly identified causes of diarrhea are linked to dietary management, bacterial infection, toxins, or viruses.

Diarrhea can also be a symptom of several different diseases and disorders, some of which are discussed below.

Dietary Management

Diet is one of the biggest causes of diarrhea. Certain feeding practices and feeds can cause dysbiosis of the hindgut, which results in a shift in the hindgut microbiota. Quick or abrupt changes to diet can also shock the microbiome, causing imbalances in the microbial populations which affects nutrient fermentation.

Diarrhea linked to dietary management is often treated with changes to your horse’s feeding plan and does not usually require medications. During bouts of diarrhea, it is critical to ensure adequate hydration and to maintain electrolyte balance.

1) Over- or Under-Feeding

Diarrhea may be a sign that your horse is being over- or under-fed. [1][6]

Horses that are eating too much may be putting excess strain on their gastrointestinal system or surpassing the capacity of the small intestine to digest starch. Horses that are underfed may experience nutrient deficiencies that impair gut health and interfere with cell turnover in the intestinal lining.

Over- and under-feeding can also have their own set of health consequences (i.e. obesity, ulcers, instability of the microbiome).

2) Osmotic Diarrhea

Imbalances of electrolytes such as sodium and chloride can also result in diarrhea.

This is called osmotic diarrhea and can occur in adult horses and foals. In foals, it commonly occurs when feeding commercial milk replacers that are not digesting it well. In adult horses, there are anecdotal reports of diarrhea developing from overconsumption of salt (sodium chloride).

Other compounds in the diet can also induce osmotic diarrhea. For example, excess magnesium, particularly in the form of magnesium sulfate (epsom salts) can induce diarrhea. In fact, it is commonly used as a laxative to draw water into the intestinal lumen and increase the rate of passage. It is likely the sulfate component of this molecule that has this effect. [23]

High sulfate in drinking water is well known to cause diarrhea in other farm animals. There is a documented case of high sulfate and high salinity (salt) water on a farm in Canada causing severe diarrhea and even death in horses. [26]

3) Forage Type

Not all hays or forages are created equal and some forages are known to increase the risk of gut problems.

High-quality fresh grass or young cuts of grass hays are recommended for horses recovering from serious gastrointestinal issues. Hay cut at a early growth stage is less fibrous than mature hay. This makes it more easily digestible and less likely to cause irritation through the digestive tract. [10]

High-quality alfalfa hay can be used to promote food intake in horses with low appetites. However, in general, alfalfa hay should not represent more than 10 – 20% of your horse’s forage intake. Always introduce it slowly.

You can learn more about hay selection in this article.

4) Poor Forage or Hay Quality

Inconsistent hay quality can be a major factor in diarrhea episodes for horses. The hay you have available to your horse may change depending on the time of harvest, soil conditions, and hay maturity. All of these factors can alter the nutrient composition and water holding capacity of forage.

Ensuring consistent hay quality can prevent diarrhea episodes. [9] Make hay changes gradually so as to allow the microbiome time to adjust.

If travelling, consider using hay cubes which provide more consistent quality.

5) Feeding Mouldy Forage, Hay, or Concentrates

Mouldy hay is common in hot and humid conditions, but can cause serious problems for your horse’s gut and overall health. Mould is a source of mycotoxins that can disrupt your horse’s microbiome and causes diarrhea.

Avoid exposure of feedstuffs to moisture by storing forage or hay in a cool, dry, and dark environment. Throw out any mouldy feed to reduce the risk of toxins entering your horse’s digestive system.

6) Abrupt Changes to Your Feeding Regimen

The horse’s digestive system is very sensitive to changes and the microbiome is easily disrupted when new feeds are introduced. Abrupt changes to your feeding regimen can disrupt the delicate balance of microbes in the digestive tract and result in diarrhea. [7][9]

Horses are hindgut fermenters. They rely on microbes in the hindgut to ferment fibres found in forage so they can extract energy from fermentable fibrous fractions, fructan, and complex plant sugars that are not digestible in the small intestine.

When new hays are introduced, this can alter the microbial populations in the cecum and colon which can cause diarrhea.

Make changes gradually over a one-to-two-week period. These include changing your horse’s forage or hay type, switching their concentrate source, or even adjusting mealtimes.

7) High Intakes of Hydrolyzable Carbohydrates (HC)

Grains and concentrates (i.e. oats, barley, maize) are high in HC and may be associated with looser stool. Hydrolyzable carbohydrates include starches and sugars digestible in the small intestine.

The horse’s small intestine only has a limited ability for digesting HC and excess amounts can enter the hindgut, leading to a more acidic environment (reduced pH) in the hindgut and unfavourable conditions for fibre fermenting organisms.

Diets that are too high in HC can cause dysbiosis and lead to diarrhea. In fact, the first sign your horse is getting too much grain or young grass is diarrhea. Limit grains and concentrates when possible and provide fibre-rich grass or hay as the majority of your horse’s diet. [6][7]

HC vs NSC

The NSC (non-structural carbohydrate) fraction of your horse’s hay is HC plus fructans. Fructans are rapidly fermented and an overload has been shown to produce hindgut acidosis in experimental settings. With consumption of normal levels of fructan in hay, it is possible you could see some diarrhea if suddenly switching from a low to a high fructan hay.

Diet is among the most commonly identified causes of diarrhea in horses. Management involves making adjustments to feeding practices and ensuring adequate hydration, electrolyte balance, and in some cases feeding additional protein.

 

Stressors

Stress can lead to hormonal changes in the horse that can result in many digestive problems such as diarrhea. Hormonal responses may alter a horse’s appetite and result in reduced feed intake. Hormones can also affect how the digestive system processes food.

Stress-induced diarrhea is most commonly acute unless the stressor persists, in which case diarrhea can become chronic.

The best way to prevent stress-induced diarrhea is to eliminate or reduce exposure to the stressor. Feeding management can help reduce the impact of stress-related diarrhea when this is not an option.

Digestive health supplements may benefit horses exposed to stressful conditions more frequently, such as athletic or working horses. Ensuring proper hydration and electrolyte balance is also critical for these horses.

8) Weaning

The stress of weaning commonly causes variable degrees of diarrhea. This is made worse if the foal was not completely accustomed to the weanling diet and if the weanling is kept in a stall. Stall confinement of more than 12 hours per day can reduce colonic motility. [12]

9) Travel and Trailering

Travel can be stressful for horses and results in similar physiological effects as stall confinement. [12] Horses that are trailered often have inconsistent access to food and water while in transit.

Horses are usually confined while traveling and can’t express normal species-appropriate foraging behaviours. This lack of movement results in decreased gut motility and reduced movement of digesta through the colon.

Horses are also greatly affected by new environments, changes in routine and changes in social grouping. Horses that are being transported may require additional dietary support in the form of probiotics or other supplements to minimize the risk of gut problems.

10) Environmental Stress

Environmental stress can also negatively affect digestion and lead to diarrhea. [12] Examples of environmental stressors can include loud sounds or unusual movements, changes in housing conditions, and changes to social dynamics.

Catecholamines, the “fight or flight” hormones of epinephrine and norepinephrine, increase colonic motility, divert blood away from the intestines, and can contribute to the toxicity of harmful bacterial strains. [21]

11) High-Intensity Exercise

Regular exercise is great for digestive health as it can encourage the transit of feed through the digestive tract and promote hydration. However, too much exercise can lead to gut issues.

Intense exercise may contribute to diarrhea by causing food to move rapidly through the intestines. When gut motility is increased, absorption of nutrients and water from feed is compromised, which can overwhelm the hindgut with digesta. [13]

12) Anesthesia Recovery

Research shows that stress from anesthesia may impact the microbiome of horses, resulting in bouts of diarrhea.

The effects of anesthesia on digestive health are not well understood. Horses receiving anesthesia typically also undergo fasting and transportation, so it is difficult to isolate the effects of anesthesia in the scientific literature. [14]

Stress can affect your horse’s digestive health and contribute to diarrhea. Minimizing stress is the best way to prevent diarrhea, but dietary management can also help.

 

Bacterial Infection

Bacterial infections can cause dysbiosis, resulting in diarrhea and other symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and loss of appetite.

Horses with bacterial infections may require intravenous supply of fluids and electrolytes to replenish fluid levels and prevent dehydration.

Horses may require treatment with antibiotics or prescription non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Use of antibiotic medications can also contribute to diarrhea as these drugs kill off both good and bad bacteria in the gut. Probiotic supplements can help to replenish the microbiome following use of antibiotics. [5]

13) Salmonella

Salmonella infection is one of the most commonly diagnosed causes of infectious diarrhea in adult horses. [4] This pathogenic bacteria releases toxins that cause inflammation in the intestinal lining.

Your horse may become infected by Salmonella through feed or water contamination, eating feces that contain the bacteria, or contact with other infected animals. There are also horses that harbor Salmonella in low amounts in their intestinal tract and will develop diarrhea when stressed or if their microbiome is disrupted; e.g. after colic surgery.

Horses with Salmonellosis may exhibit mild signs such as fever, weakness, low appetite and watery stools. Laminitis is also common. In severe cases, diarrhea may be bloody and fatality can occur.

14) Clostridium

Clostridium is another pathogenic bacteria that can cause diarrhea in horses. These bacteria grow in the small and large intestines and the rectum of the horses. [11]

Overgrowth of C. difficile and C. perfringens is linked to antibiotic use, food deprivation, and stress in horses. [17][18]

Horses may be exposed to the bacteria through the feces of a horse treated with antibiotics, the feces of a foal with diarrhea, or at a veterinary hospital.

Pathogenic bacteria can cause changes in the horse’s gut microflora and lead to diarrhea. Probiotics and antibiotics may be recommended by your veterinarian.

 

Parasitic Infection

Internal parasites can be a serious problem for horses, resulting in diarrhea, weight loss, weakness, fatigue, and subcutaneous edema.

If you suspect your horse is affected by parasites, consult with your veterinarian. Treatment should be administered as soon as possible to minimize adverse effects.

Regular deworming and appropriate management strategies can help to reduce parasite loads in horses.

15) Larval Cyathostominosis

Over 40 cyathostominosis species can infest the large intestine of horses. These can cause watery stools and diarrhea if large numbers of encysted larvae emerge en masse in late winter or early spring. [6]

The larvae from cyathostomes (small strongyles) become embedded in the large intestine encased within cysts. Larval cyathostominosis occurs when the larvae emerge from the cysts and trigger an immune reaction that causes damage to the intestinal lining.

Grazing horses can ingest these parasites if they are foraging near manure piles and become infected. Cyathostominosis infections may require anti-inflammatory drugs, fluid therapy, and other medications.

Parasites are spread through contact with infected feces from other horses. In severe cases, infectious diarrhea caused by parasites can be fatal.

 

Environment and Toxins

Toxins and other substances in your horse’s environment can result in diarrhea if consumed in large amounts.

Certain poisonous plants contain chemicals that can disrupt gut function. Excess use of medications can also result in toxicosis.

16) NSAID Toxicity

Prolonged use of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) at high doses can result in NSAID toxicity. [6]

Excessive use of NSAIDs can result in increased intestinal permeability, right dorsal colitis, and protein deficiencies, all of which can result in diarrhea.

17) Sand Ingestion

Sandy pastures, paddocks, and stalls can lead to sand ingestion in your horse. Sand can accumulate in the large intestine and disrupt the microbiome, potentially resulting in diarrhea. [6]

In serious cases, sand ingestion can lead to impaction and sand colic.

18) Toxic Plants:

Ingestion of the following plants can cause diarrhea in horses and other serious side effects: [3][19]

  • Buttercups
  • Oleander
  • Nightshade
  • Acorns
  • Yucca
  • Raw linseed oil
  • Castor oil
Ingestion of toxins, drugs and other environmental substances can cause diarrhea. Minimize the use of NSAIDs, pay attention to plants that grow in your pasture and avoid using ground feeders in sandy locations.

 

Disease and Disorders

In some cases of diarrhea, the underlying cause can be a disease or disorder that affects the gastrointestinal system. Consultation with a veterinarian is required to diagnose the problem.

19) Free Fecal Water Syndrome

Diarrhea may occur in conjunction with Free Fecal Water Syndrome (FFW). [15]

Horses with FFW can experience two distinct phases of defecation: a solid phase in which solid feces are eliminated and a liquid phase in which free water runs out of the anus before, during, or after the solid phase.

The cause of fecal water is unclear; but it commonly occurs in older horses when switched to a higher fiber forage. Older horses prone to FFW or diarrhea are known to have lower numbers and less diversity in their microbiome. [27]

20) Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

Inflammatory Bowel Disease is an autoimmune condition that can affect nutrient absorption and gut permeability. [6][16]

Horses with IBD experience inflammation in the lining of the small intestine. If the large intestine is also affected, diarrhea can occur.

21) Hindgut Ulcers

Ulceration of the lining of the hindgut only occurs in extreme conditions of severe right dorsal colitis, sand loads, experimental overload of starch or fructan, or massive emergence of small strongyle larvae. Diarrhea often accompanies this and the horses are extremely ill.

Diarrhea can sometimes occur in conjunction with gastric ulcers in foals.

22) Gastrointestinal Lymphoma (Cancer)

This disease is extremely rare in horses, but can cause diarrhea. Horses affected by gastrointestinal lymphoma can exhibit symptoms such as weight loss, poor appetite (anorexia), lethargy, abdominal pain and diarrhea.

In some cases, diarrhea may be a symptom of a more serious equine disease or disorder affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Consult with your veterinarian for appropriate treatment.

 

Diarrhea in Foals

Diarrhea is extremely common in foals as the immune system and gut microbiome are not yet well-established. [1]

According to one study, 20% of foals experience diarrhea within the first six months of life. [4] During the first few weeks of life, foals are particularly susceptible to infections, disease, and gut disturbances.

Some cases of diarrhea in foals may resolve on their own without medical care or treatment. However, it is important to consult with your veterinarian to rule out other more serious causes of diarrhea, particularly if the foal shows loss of appetite or a dull affect.

23) Foal Heat Diarrhea

Within the first four to fourteen days of life, foals may develop foal heat diarrhea or scours. This condition is believed to be caused by changes in the foal’s gastrointestinal tract with the addition of feed to the diet or ingestion of Strongyloides larvae through the dam’s milk.

Foals may also come into contact with bacteria through ingestion of the mare’s manure (coprophagy), resulting in changes to the foal’s gut flora. Foal heat scours will typically resolve over time as the hindgut microbiome is established.

24) Rotavirus

Foals younger than six months old are at high risk of contracting rotavirus, a contagious virus that is one of the most common reasons why foals experience diarrhea.

Exposure to contaminated feces is the main route of transmission for rotavirus. If your foal has diarrhea, keeping it away from other foals and horses can help to minimize the risk of contagious transmission.

25) Rhodococcus equi

Foals are susceptible to infection by Rhodococcus equi bacterium, which live in the soil. This pathogen can cause pneumonia in foals. [3]

Approximately one-third of foals affected by Rhodococcus equi experience diarrhea as a symptom. Foals showing respiratory or gastrointestinal signs of R.equi infection should be isolated from the herd to minimize spread of the virus.

26) Transitioning from Milk to Feed

As the foal begins to consume solid foods such as hay, forage, and eventually grains and concentrates, their digestive system needs to adjust. This transition is sometimes associated with diarrhea, especially if the foal’s diet is changed abruptly.

Foals may also develop diarrhea or loose stools as a result of feeding a milk replacer or cow’s milk. [22]

Forages, grains and concentrates should be introduced as “creep feed” before the foal is weaned to help ease the transition away from milk and minimize digestive upsets related to weaning.

Foals are more susceptible to infections and dysbiosis as their microbiome is still being established. This puts them at increased risk of experiencing diarrhea.

Diagnosing Diarrhea in Horses

Not every bout of diarrhea warrants a visit from your veterinarian. However, sometimes diarrhea is a sign of a bigger problem that requires veterinary care.

Monitor your horse closely for the first 24 hours of a diarrhea episode. If unaccompanied by other symptoms, the loose stools may resolve on their own without needing further attention.

If 24 hours have passed and your horse is still experiencing diarrhea, seek out veterinary care. Unresolved diarrhea can cause dehydration, loss of electrolytes, reduced nutrient uptake and other serious problems.

Check to see whether your horse is exhibiting any of the following signs or symptoms alongside diarrhea:

  • Reduced energy levels
  • Lower appetite
  • Stereotypic behaviours
  • Poor skin and coat health
  • Lameness or resistance to exercise
  • Weight loss

Symptoms such as these could indicate an underlying issue.

Treatment and Management of Diarrhea

Treatment of equine diarrhea typically involves addressing the underlying causes of this condition and supporting fluid balance during recovery.

Closely monitor your horse for any worsening of symptoms. This condition can become dangerous if it is associated with excessive water loss and dehydration.

Fresh, clean lukewarm water should be available to your horse at all times. Provide plain loose salt to promote thirst and rehydration. In addition to plain water you can offer homemade saline solution by adding 2 teaspoons of plain salt per liter of water.

Diarrhea can lead to massive losses of both fluid and sodium. [28] Other electrolytes are not affected. Feed salt to help your horse maintain their sodium levels. This can be done by adding salt to the feed, offer salted moistened/soaked hay cubes, or sprinkling the salt directly onto moistened hay.

Your veterinarian can guide you regarding how much salt to feed.

Diet and Routine

If your horse experiences diarrhea, it is a good opportunity to review their feeding plan and daily management. A well-balanced diet and species-appropriate lifestyle can help to prevent future disturbances to your horse’s gut health.

You can read our article on How to Feed a Horse with Diarrhea for a complete list of strategies to support your horse’s recovery.

Some of the most important steps to follow include: [6][7]

  • Remove starch-rich feed or grains from the diet
  • Provide easily fermented fibre-rich feeds such as soya hulls, beet pulp or psyllium
  • Limit vegetable oil supplementation
  • Consider supplementation of probiotics and yeast
  • Feed many small meals throughout the day
  • Ensure adequate protein intake

Chronic diarrhea can lead to hypoproteinemia – low levels of protein in the blood. This is a consequence of protein loss from the blood into the intestines when they are inflammed.

Horses with chronic diarrhea should have their diet reviewed by an equine nutritionist to address potential nutrient deficiencies and weight loss.

Stress is a major contributing factor to digestive dysfunction in horses. Try to minimize stress where possible, make changes to routine gradually, and consider reducing high-intensity exercise or travel.

Gut Supplements

A veterinarian may recommend intestinal absorbents or anti-diarrhea compounds to manage diarrhea. These can include activated charcoal, bismuth subsalicylate, and kaolin.

Probiotic supplements can be beneficial in supporting the microbioime. Lactobacillus strains of bacteria and Saccharomyces yeast appear to be the most effective. [20]

Consider adding a gut health supplement to your horse’s feeding plan. Mad Barn’s Optimum Digestive Health is a complete digestion and immune supplement for horses.

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  • Prebiotics, probiotics & enzymes
  • Support hindgut development
  • Combats harmful toxins in feed
  • Complete GI tract coverage

Optimum Digestive Health contains a combination of probiotics, prebiotics, and yeast to support nutrient absorption and stabilize gut flora. This supplement is also a source of toxin binders to prevent harmful substances from being absorbed.

Looking for advice on feeding a horse with diarrhea? You can receive a free consultation from our equine nutritionists by submitting your horse’s diet online.

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References

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  2. OMAFRA Poisoning of Horses by Plants.. 2021
  3. Rush B. Rhodococcus equi Pneumonia in Foals. Merck Vet Man. 2014.
  4. McKenzie H.C. Disorders of Foals. Equine Intern Med. 2018.
  5. Rolfe R.D. The role of probiotic cultures in the control of gastrointestinal health. J Anim Nutr. 2000.
  6. Hillyer M. A practical approach to diarrhoea in the adult horse.. Clin Prac. 2004.
  7. Cipriano-Salazar M. et al. The dietary components and feeding management as options to offset digestive disturbances in horses. J Equine Vet Sci. 2019.
  8. Goncalves S. et al.Risk factors associated with colic in horses. Vet Res. 2002. View Summary
  9. Geor R.J. et al.How to minimize gastrointestinal disease associated with carbohydrate nutrition in horses. AAEP Proceedings. 2007.
  10. Magdesian K.G. Nutrition for critical gastrointestinal illness: feeding horses with diarrhea or colic.Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2003. View Summary
  11. Baverud V. Clostridium difficile diarrhea: infection control in horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2004. View Summary
  12. Garber A. et al. Factors influencing equine gut microbiota: Current knowledge. J Equine Vet Sci. 2020.View Summary
  13. Pagan J.D. et al. Exercise affects digestibility and rate of passage of all-forage and mixed diets in Thoroughbred horses. J Nutr. 1998.View Summary
  14. Anderson M.S. et al.Risk factors for colic in horses after general anaesthesia for MRI or nonabdominal surgery: absence of evidence of effect from perianaesthetic morphine. Equine Vet J. 2010.View Summary
  15. Lindroth K. Free faecal liquid in horses. Faculty of Vet Med and Anim Sci. 2020.
  16. Kalck K.A. Inflammatory bowel disease in horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2009.View Summary
  17. Mair T. et al.Manual of Equine Gastroenterology.Saunders Ltd. 2002.
  18. Baverud V. et al.Clostridium difficile: Prevalence in horses and environment, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Equine Vet J. 2010. View Summary
  19. Williams C.A.Specialized dietary supplements. Equine Appl Clin Nutr. 2013.
  20. Allaart J.G. et al. Effect of lactobacillus fermentum on Beta2 Toxin production by Clostridium perfringens. Appl Envrion Microbiol. 2011.
  21. Niu, L. et al. Effects of Catecholamine Stress Hormones Norepinephrine and Epinephrine on Growth, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Biofilm Formation, and Gene Expressions of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Int J Mol Sci. 2023.
  22. Stewart, A. Foal diarrhea: causes, diagnosis and treatment (Proceedings). DVM360. August 1, 2011.
  23. Freeman, DE. et al. Comparison of the effects of intragastric infusions of equal volumes of water, dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate, and magnesium sulfate on fecal composition and output in clinically normal horses. Am J Vet Res. 1992.View Summary
  24. Ochoa, B. and Surawicz, C.M. Diarrheal Diseases – Acute and Chronic. American College of Gastroenterology. Accessed January 9, 2024.
  25. Hepworth-Warren, K.L. Addressing acute diarrhea in the adult horse. DVM 360. Accessed January 9, 2024.
  26. Burgess, B.A. et al. Excessive sulfate and poor water quality as a cause of sudden deaths and an outbreak of diarrhea in horses. Can Vet J. 2010. View Summary
  27. McKinney, C.A. et al. The fecal microbiota of healthy donor horses and geriatric recipients undergoing fecal microbial transplantation for the treatment of diarrhea. PLoS One. 2020.View Summary
  28. Ecke, P. et al. Induced diarrhoea in horses. Part 1: Fluid and electrolyte balance. Vet J. 1998. View Summary