The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice2019; 35(2); 351-362; doi: 10.1016/j.cveq.2019.03.001

What Do We Know About Hepatitis Viruses in Horses?

Abstract: Theiler disease (serum hepatitis or idiopathic acute hepatic necrosis) has long been suspected to have a viral etiology. Four viruses have been described in association with hepatitis in horses. Further investigation suggests equine pegivirus and Theiler disease-associated virus (a second pegivirus) are neither hepatotropic nor pathogenic. Nonprimate hepacivirus (NPHV) causes subclinical disease in experimental models and has been associated with hepatitis in some clinical cases. Equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) experimentally causes subclinical-to-clinical liver disease and is found in the vast majority of Theiler disease cases. EqPV-H is likely of clinical significance, whereas the significance of NPHV is unknown.
Publication Date: 2019-05-10 PubMed ID: 31084975DOI: 10.1016/j.cveq.2019.03.001Google Scholar: Lookup
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Summary

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Theiler disease, also known as serum hepatitis or idiopathic acute hepatic necrosis in horses, may be caused by the Equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H), while the role of Nonprimate hepacivirus (NPHV) remains uncertain.

Background

  • Theiler disease is also referred to as serum hepatitis or idiopathic acute hepatic necrosis in horses.
  • It has been suspected for a long time that a virus might be the cause of Theiler disease.
  • Four viruses have previously been associated with liver disease in horses.

Research Findings on Various Viruses

  • Both equine pegivirus and Theiler disease-associated virus (which is another pegivirus) have been investigated. It was found that:
    • They are not attracted to the liver (non-hepatotropic).
    • They are not disease-causing (non-pathogenic).
  • Nonprimate hepacivirus (NPHV):
    • Causes mild or no symptoms in experimental models.
    • Has been linked to liver disease in some real-world cases.
    • Its clinical significance remains uncertain.
  • Equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H):
    • Can cause a range of liver disease, from no symptoms to full-blown disease, in experimental settings.
    • Is present in most cases of Theiler disease.
    • Is likely a significant cause of liver disease in horses.

Conclusion

  • Of the viruses studied, Equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) is likely the main virus of concern in relation to Theiler disease.
  • The role and importance of Nonprimate hepacivirus (NPHV) in causing liver disease in horses is still not clear and needs further investigation.

Cite This Article

APA
Tomlinson JE, Van de Walle GR, Divers TJ. (2019). What Do We Know About Hepatitis Viruses in Horses? Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract, 35(2), 351-362. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cveq.2019.03.001

Publication

ISSN: 1558-4224
NlmUniqueID: 8511904
Country: United States
Language: English
Volume: 35
Issue: 2
Pages: 351-362
PII: S0749-0739(19)30013-6

Researcher Affiliations

Tomlinson, Joy E
  • Baker Institute for Animal Health, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, 235 Hungerford Hill Road, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. Electronic address: jet37@cornell.edu.
Van de Walle, Gerlinde R
  • Baker Institute for Animal Health, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, 235 Hungerford Hill Road, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.
Divers, Thomas J
  • Department of Clinical Sciences, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, 930 Campus Road, Box25, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

MeSH Terms

  • Animals
  • Hepatitis Viruses / isolation & purification
  • Hepatitis Viruses / pathogenicity
  • Hepatitis Viruses / physiology
  • Hepatitis, Viral, Animal / virology
  • Horse Diseases / pathology
  • Horse Diseases / virology
  • Horses

Citations

This article has been cited 8 times.
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    doi: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1741326pubmed: 32192415google scholar: lookup
  8. Meister TL, Tegtmeyer B, Bru00fcggemann Y, Sieme H, Feige K, Todt D, Stang A, Cavalleri JV, Steinmann E. Characterization of Equine Parvovirus in Thoroughbred Breeding Horses from Germany.. Viruses 2019 Oct 18;11(10).
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