Equine veterinary journal2003; 35(2); 153-157; doi: 10.2746/042516403776114234

Equine melanoma in a population of 296 grey Lipizzaner horses.

Abstract: Equine melanomas occur most commonly in grey horses at age 5 years or more. Generally, benign and malignant melanomas are distinguished by microscopy, but a more distinct classification would be helpful. Objective: The objectives of this study were to gain further evidence concerning the occurrence of melanotic tumours, and to evaluate the impact of heredity on melanoma development. Methods: A clinical study was conducted on a defined population of 296 grey horses of Lipizzaner breed. Individuals were classified according to their stage of disease using a 0-5 scale. Heritability was estimated on a sample of 296 grey horses with pedigrees traced back as far as 32 generations. Results: Of the 296 horses, dermal melanomas were present in 148 horses (50%), 68 of which were more than age 15 years; 51 of these were melanoma-bearing. In 75.6% of cases, melanotic tumours were detected underneath the tail. Although melanoma-bearing grey horses were encountered up to stage 4, none of the affected individuals suffered any severe clinical effect or was handicapped in performance. Statistical analysis revealed highly significant effects of stud and age (P < 0.0001), explaining 28% of the total variability. Conclusions: In contrast to melanomas in solid-coloured horses characterised by early metastases, melanomas in grey horses showed less malignancy. Affected individuals often had encapsulated nodules or structures similar to human blue nevi. Grey horse-specific genetic factors inhibiting metastatic processes may be responsible for this phenomenon. Conclusions: Although the obtained heritability estimate of 0.36 with a standard error of 0.11 indicates a strong genetic impact on the development of melanoma in ageing grey horses, a possible influence of the genes with large effects was also suggested. Therefore, further analysis is required of melanoma development in the ageing grey horse.
Publication Date: 2003-03-18 PubMed ID: 12638791DOI: 10.2746/042516403776114234Google Scholar: Lookup
The Equine Research Bank provides access to a large database of publicly available scientific literature. Inclusion in the Research Bank does not imply endorsement of study methods or findings by Mad Barn.
  • Journal Article

Summary

This research summary has been generated with artificial intelligence and may contain errors and omissions. Refer to the original study to confirm details provided. Submit correction.

This study explores the occurrence of melanoma, a type of skin cancer, in a population of 296 Lipizzaner horses that are grey in color. It also determines the influence of hereditary factors on the development of this condition.

Objective and Methodology

  • The researchers aimed to expand the understanding of the prevalence of melanotic tumours in this breed and determine if inheritance played a role in melanoma development.
  • A clinical examination was conducted on a specific population of 296 grey Lipizzaner horses.
  • The overall health of these horses was gauged using a scale from 0-5, with 0 being healthy and 5 being severely affected by the disease.
  • The researchers looked into the horses’ pedigrees as far as 32 generations back to assess hereditary factors.

Results

  • The study discovered that 50% of the horses were affected by dermal melanomas, with a higher prevalence in horses older than 15 years.
  • Most of these tumors were located underneath the tail.
  • Despite having melanomas, none of these horses showed any severe clinical effects affecting their performances.
  • The researchers observed a significant effect of the stud and age of the horses on the occurrence of melanoma, which accounted for 28% of the total variability.

Conclusions

  • One of the key conclusions made was that melanomas in grey horses were less malignant when compared with solid-colored horses, often appearing as encapsulated nodules or similar human blue nevi.
  • The researchers proposed that this might be due to specific genetic factors in grey horses that inhibit the metastasis of the disease.
  • They also found that the occurrence of melanoma in aging grey horses is strongly influenced by their genetics, with a heritability estimate of 0.36.
  • However, the study also hints at the potential influence of other genes with large effects, thus, further research is necessary to fully understand melanoma development in these horses.

Cite This Article

APA
Seltenhammer MH, Simhofer H, Scherzer S, Zechner R, Curik I, Su00f6lkner J, Brandt SM, Jansen B, Pehamberger H, Eisenmenger E. (2003). Equine melanoma in a population of 296 grey Lipizzaner horses. Equine Vet J, 35(2), 153-157. https://doi.org/10.2746/042516403776114234

Publication

ISSN: 0425-1644
NlmUniqueID: 0173320
Country: United States
Language: English
Volume: 35
Issue: 2
Pages: 153-157

Researcher Affiliations

Seltenhammer, M H
  • Department of Clinical Surgery and Ophthalmology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria.
Simhofer, H
    Scherzer, S
      Zechner, R
        Curik, I
          Su00f6lkner, J
            Brandt, S M
              Jansen, B
                Pehamberger, H
                  Eisenmenger, E

                    MeSH Terms

                    • Age Distribution
                    • Animals
                    • Breeding
                    • Female
                    • Hair Color
                    • Horse Diseases / classification
                    • Horse Diseases / diagnosis
                    • Horse Diseases / genetics
                    • Horses
                    • Male
                    • Melanoma / classification
                    • Melanoma / diagnosis
                    • Melanoma / genetics
                    • Melanoma / veterinary
                    • Nevus, Pigmented / classification
                    • Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis
                    • Nevus, Pigmented / genetics
                    • Nevus, Pigmented / veterinary
                    • Skin Neoplasms / classification
                    • Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
                    • Skin Neoplasms / genetics
                    • Skin Neoplasms / veterinary

                    Citations

                    This article has been cited 18 times.
                    1. Pimenta J, Pires I, Prada J, Cotovio M. E-Cadherin Immunostaining in Equine Melanocytic Tumors.. Animals (Basel) 2023 Jul 6;13(13).
                      doi: 10.3390/ani13132216pubmed: 37444014google scholar: lookup
                    2. Pimenta J, Prada J, Cotovio M. Equine Melanocytic Tumors: A Narrative Review.. Animals (Basel) 2023 Jan 10;13(2).
                      doi: 10.3390/ani13020247pubmed: 36670786google scholar: lookup
                    3. Tesena P, Kingkaw A, Phaonakrop N, Roytrakul S, Limudomporn P, Vongsangnak W, Kovitvadhi A. Faecal Proteomics and Functional Analysis of Equine Melanocytic Neoplasm in Grey Horses.. Vet Sci 2022 Feb 21;9(2).
                      doi: 10.3390/vetsci9020094pubmed: 35202347google scholar: lookup
                    4. Weber LA, Delarocque J, Feige K, Kietzmann M, Kalbitz J, Meiu00dfner J, Paschke R, Cavalleri JV. Effects of Topically Applied Betulinic Acid and NVX-207 on Melanocytic Tumors in 18 Horses.. Animals (Basel) 2021 Nov 13;11(11).
                      doi: 10.3390/ani11113250pubmed: 34827981google scholar: lookup
                    5. Druml T, Brem G, Velie B, Lindgren G, Horna M, Ricard A, Grilz-Seger G. Equine vitiligo-like depigmentation in grey horses is related to genes involved in immune response and tumor metastasis.. BMC Vet Res 2021 Oct 25;17(1):336.
                      doi: 10.1186/s12917-021-03046-xpubmed: 34696794google scholar: lookup
                    6. Tesena P, Kingkaw A, Vongsangnak W, Pitikarn S, Phaonakrop N, Roytrakul S, Kovitvadhi A. Preliminary Study: Proteomic Profiling Uncovers Potential Proteins for Biomonitoring Equine Melanocytic Neoplasm.. Animals (Basel) 2021 Jun 27;11(7).
                      doi: 10.3390/ani11071913pubmed: 34199079google scholar: lookup
                    7. Weber LA, Funtan A, Paschke R, Delarocque J, Kalbitz J, Meiu00dfner J, Feige K, Kietzmann M, Cavalleri JV. In vitro assessment of triterpenoids NVX-207 and betulinyl-bis-sulfamate as a topical treatment for equine skin cancer.. PLoS One 2020;15(11):e0241448.
                      doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0241448pubmed: 33151949google scholar: lookup
                    8. van der Weyden L, Brenn T, Patton EE, Wood GA, Adams DJ. Spontaneously occurring melanoma in animals and their relevance to human melanoma.. J Pathol 2020 Sep;252(1):4-21.
                      doi: 10.1002/path.5505pubmed: 32652526google scholar: lookup
                    9. Weber LA, Meiu00dfner J, Delarocque J, Kalbitz J, Feige K, Kietzmann M, Michaelis A, Paschke R, Michael J, Pratscher B, Cavalleri JV. Betulinic acid shows anticancer activity against equine melanoma cells and permeates isolated equine skin in vitro.. BMC Vet Res 2020 Feb 5;16(1):44.
                      doi: 10.1186/s12917-020-2262-5pubmed: 32024502google scholar: lookup
                    10. Grilz-Seger G, Druml T, Neuditschko M, Dobretsberger M, Horna M, Brem G. High-resolution population structure and runs of homozygosity reveal the genetic architecture of complex traits in the Lipizzan horse.. BMC Genomics 2019 Mar 5;20(1):174.
                      doi: 10.1186/s12864-019-5564-xpubmed: 30836959google scholar: lookup
                    11. Ledet MM, Oswald M, Anderson R, Van de Walle GR. Differential signaling pathway activation in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a] anthracene (DMBA)-treated mammary stem/progenitor cells from species with varying mammary cancer incidence.. Oncotarget 2018 Aug 28;9(67):32761-32774.
                      doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.25988pubmed: 30214683google scholar: lookup
                    12. Mu00e4hlmann K, Feige K, Juhls C, Endmann A, Schuberth HJ, Oswald D, Hellige M, Doherr M, Cavalleri JM. Local and systemic effect of transfection-reagent formulated DNA vectors on equine melanoma.. BMC Vet Res 2015 Jun 11;11:132.
                      doi: 10.1186/s12917-015-0422-9pubmed: 26063232google scholar: lookup
                    13. Mu00e4hlmann K, Feige K, Juhls C, Endmann A, Schuberth HJ, Oswald D, Hellige M, Doherr M, Cavalleri JM. Local and systemic effect of transfection-reagent formulated DNA vectors on equine melanoma.. BMC Vet Res 2015 May 14;11:107.
                      doi: 10.1186/s12917-015-0414-9pubmed: 25967290google scholar: lookup
                    14. Metcalfe LV, O'Brien PJ, Papakonstantinou S, Cahalan SD, McAllister H, Duggan VE. Malignant melanoma in a grey horse: case presentation and review of equine melanoma treatment options.. Ir Vet J 2013 Nov 6;66(1):22.
                      doi: 10.1186/2046-0481-66-22pubmed: 24196087google scholar: lookup
                    15. Curik I, Druml T, Seltenhammer M, Sundstru00f6m E, Pielberg GR, Andersson L, Su00f6lkner J. Complex inheritance of melanoma and pigmentation of coat and skin in Grey horses.. PLoS Genet 2013;9(2):e1003248.
                      doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003248pubmed: 23408897google scholar: lookup
                    16. Campagne C, Julu00e9 S, Bernex F, Estrada M, Aubin-Houzelstein G, Panthier JJ, Egidy G. RACK1, a clue to the diagnosis of cutaneous melanomas in horses.. BMC Vet Res 2012 Jun 29;8:95.
                      doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-95pubmed: 22747534google scholar: lookup
                    17. Brosnahan MM, Brooks SA, Antczak DF. Equine clinical genomics: A clinician's primer.. Equine Vet J 2010 Oct;42(7):658-70.
                    18. McMullen RJ, Clode AB, Pandiri AK, Malarkey DE, Michau TM, Gilger BC. Epibulbar melanoma in a foal.. Vet Ophthalmol 2008 Sep;11 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):44-50.