Journal of equine veterinary science2020; 91; 103103; doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2020.103103

Form of Vitamin E Supplementation Affects Oxidative and Inflammatory Response in Exercising Horses.

Abstract: Vitamin E is an essential antioxidant that may benefit athletes by reducing oxidative stress and influencing cytokine expression. Supplements can be derived from natural or manufactured synthetic sources. This study aimed to determine (1) if supplemental vitamin E is beneficial to exercising horses and (2) if there is a benefit of natural versus synthetic vitamin E. After 2 weeks on the control diet (vitamin E-deficient grain and hay), 18 horses were divided into three groups and fed the control diet plus (1) 1000 IU/d synthetic α-tocopherol (SYN-L), (2) 4000 IU/d synthetic α-tocopherol (SYN-H), or (3) 4000 IU/d RRR-α-tocopherol (natural source [NAT]). On day 7, horses began a 6-week training protocol, with standard exercise tests (SETs) performed before and after the 6-week protocol. Venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 29, and 49. Horses fed NAT had higher α-tocopherol (P < .05) at post-SET1 through post-SET2. Plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels were lower in NAT versus SYN-L horses after SET2 (P = .02). Serum aspartate aminotransferase was lower after exercise in NAT horses versus SYN-L and SYN-H (P = .02), and less reduction in stride duration was seen after exercise in NAT as compared with SYN-L and SYN-H (P = .02). Gene expression of tumor necrosis factor α was lower in NAT compared with SYN-H (P = .01) but not SYN-L. In conclusion, feeding higher levels of natural vitamin E source resulted in higher serum α-tocopherol levels as well as some improvement in oxidative and inflammatory response and improved functional outcomes in response to an exercise test.
Publication Date: 2020-04-29 PubMed ID: 32684249DOI: 10.1016/j.jevs.2020.103103Google Scholar: Lookup
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  • Journal Article
  • Research Support
  • Non-U.S. Gov't

Summary

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The research article evaluates the effects of supplementing natural versus synthetic vitamin E in the diet of exercising horses, and it concludes that a higher level of natural vitamin E supplementation results in improved oxidative and inflammatory responses and functional outcomes in exercised horses.

Research Objective and Methodology

  • The main objective of this study was to understand the potential health benefits of vitamin E supplementation in exercising horses, and to distinguish if the benefits differ between natural and synthetic vitamin E supplements.
  • The researchers conducted a controlled experiment on 18 horses, which were initially put on a control diet deficient in vitamin E for two weeks.
  • The horses were then divided into three groups. One group was given a low dose of synthetic vitamin E (1000 IU/d α-tocopherol), the second group received a high dose of synthetic vitamin E (4000 IU/d α-tocopherol), and the third group was supplemented with a high dose of natural vitamin E (4000 IU/d RRR-α-tocopherol).
  • Following the dietary changes, the horses began a 6-week training protocol. Standard exercise tests (SETs) were performed before and after the training protocol, and blood samples were collected at four different time intervals for analysis.

Research Findings

  • The horses receiving the high dose of natural vitamin E supplementation exhibited higher serum α-tocopherol levels (indicating improved antioxidant activity) as compared to both the high and low dose synthetic vitamin E groups, through the post-SET1 and post-SET2 periods.
  • Lower levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (a marker of oxidative stress) were observed in the natural vitamin E group compared to the low dose synthetic group, indicating improved oxidative response.
  • The natural vitamin E group demonstrated lower levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (a measure of hepatocellular injury or stress) after exercise, suggesting better functional outcomes in response to exercise.
  • Gene expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor α, was lower in the natural vitamin E group compared to the high dose synthetic group, indicating improved inflammatory response. However, this difference was not observed when compared to the low dose synthetic group.

Conclusion

  • This study concluded that higher levels of natural vitamin E supplementation in the diet of exercising horses resulted in higher serum α-tocopherol levels and some improvement in oxidative and inflammatory response, as well as improved functional outcomes in response to an exercise test.
  • This research has implications for the food and pharmaceutical industries, particularly regarding the formulation of horse feeds and supplements. Further studies may be required to explore these findings in more detail, other species, or under different settings.

Cite This Article

APA
Fagan MM, Harris P, Adams A, Pazdro R, Krotky A, Call J, Duberstein KJ. (2020). Form of Vitamin E Supplementation Affects Oxidative and Inflammatory Response in Exercising Horses. J Equine Vet Sci, 91, 103103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2020.103103

Publication

ISSN: 0737-0806
NlmUniqueID: 8216840
Country: United States
Language: English
Volume: 91
Pages: 103103
PII: S0737-0806(20)30194-5

Researcher Affiliations

Fagan, Madison M
  • Department of Animal and Dairy Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA. Electronic address: madison.fagan25@uga.edu.
Harris, Patricia
  • Equine Studies Group, WALTHAM Center for Pet Nutrition, Slough, Berkshire.
Adams, Amanda
  • Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.
Pazdro, Robert
  • Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Family and Consumer Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA.
Krotky, Amber
  • MARS Horsecare US, Dalton, OH.
Call, Jarrod
  • Department of Kinesiology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA.
Duberstein, Kylee J
  • Department of Animal and Dairy Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

MeSH Terms

  • Animal Feed / analysis
  • Animals
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Horses
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Physical Conditioning, Animal
  • Vitamin E

Citations

This article has been cited 4 times.
  1. Johnson SE, Barshick MR, Gonzalez ML, Riley JW, Pelletier ME, Castanho BC, Ealy EN. A Carnitine-Containing Product Improves Aspects of Post-Exercise Recovery in Adult Horses.. Animals (Basel) 2023 Feb 14;13(4).
    doi: 10.3390/ani13040657pubmed: 36830444google scholar: lookup
  2. Nemec Svete A, Vovk T, Bohar Topolovec M, Kruljc P. Effects of Vitamin E and Coenzyme Q(10) Supplementation on Oxidative Stress Parameters in Untrained Leisure Horses Subjected to Acute Moderate Exercise.. Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Jun 3;10(6).
    doi: 10.3390/antiox10060908pubmed: 34205129google scholar: lookup
  3. Hao Y, Xing M, Gu X. Research Progress on Oxidative Stress and Its Nutritional Regulation Strategies in Pigs.. Animals (Basel) 2021 May 13;11(5).
    doi: 10.3390/ani11051384pubmed: 34068057google scholar: lookup
  4. Higgins MR, Izadi A, Kaviani M. Antioxidants and Exercise Performance: With a Focus on Vitamin E and C Supplementation.. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Nov 15;17(22).
    doi: 10.3390/ijerph17228452pubmed: 33203106google scholar: lookup