The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice2003; 19(1); 209-viii; doi: 10.1016/s0749-0739(02)00062-7

Sinus disease.

Abstract: The diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the paranasal sinuses and conchae of horses are complicated by the large size of these structures, their complex anatomy, difficulties of access to them, and the advanced state of many diseases before diagnosis is made. Improved diagnostic methods include nuclear scintigraphy, computed tomography, and direct endoscopy of the sinuses. Treatment of some sinus diseases can be enhanced by access through direct sinus endoscopy for focal lesions, use of large frontal bone flaps for diffuse sinus lesions, standing surgery through a frontal flap for a variety of sinus disorders, and intralesional formalin for progressive ethmoidal hematomas.
Publication Date: 2003-05-16 PubMed ID: 12747669DOI: 10.1016/s0749-0739(02)00062-7Google Scholar: Lookup
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This research article delves into the diagnosis and treatment of sinus diseases in horses, underlining the complications that arise due to the substantial size of the sinuses, complex anatomy, and the advanced state of many diseases at the time of diagnosis. The researchers highlight the advancement in diagnostic methods and the enhancements available for treating various sinus disorders.

Diagnostic Challenges

  • The article addresses the challenges in diagnosing and treating diseases in the paranasal sinuses and conchae of horses. The large size of these structures in horses, coupled with their intricate anatomy and the limited accessibility, makes the diagnosis complex.
  • Further, these diseases are often diagnosed at an advanced stage, which poses more complications in the treatment.

Improved Diagnostic Methods

  • The article points to the development of more effective diagnostic methods to address these challenges. Techniques such as nuclear scintigraphy, computed tomography, and direct endoscopy of the sinuses are identified as efficient methods for diagnosing diseases in these complex structures.

Treatment options

  • The research also suggests various advancements in the treatment of sinus diseases in horses. Direct sinus endoscopy is recognized as an effective tool for addressing focal lesions.
  • For treating diffuse sinus lesions, the use of large frontal bone flaps is identified as an improved approach.
  • The authors also recommend standing surgery through a frontal flap as a viable solution for diverse sinus disorders.
  • Lastly, the paper discusses the use of intralesional formalin as an increasingly effective treatment for progressive ethmoidal hematomas.


  • This research thus provides a comprehensive account of the complications in diagnosing and treating sinus diseases in horses and proposes improved methods for overcoming these challenges.

Cite This Article

Freeman DE. (2003). Sinus disease. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract, 19(1), 209-viii.


ISSN: 0749-0739
NlmUniqueID: 8511904
Country: United States
Language: English
Volume: 19
Issue: 1
Pages: 209-viii

Researcher Affiliations

Freeman, David E
  • University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine, 1008 West Hazelwood Drive, Urbana, IL 61802, USA.

MeSH Terms

  • Animals
  • Cysts / diagnosis
  • Cysts / surgery
  • Cysts / veterinary
  • Frontal Bone / surgery
  • Horse Diseases / diagnosis
  • Horse Diseases / surgery
  • Horses
  • Nasal Bone / surgery
  • Paranasal Sinus Diseases / diagnosis
  • Paranasal Sinus Diseases / surgery
  • Paranasal Sinus Diseases / veterinary
  • Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / surgery
  • Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / veterinary
  • Sinusitis / diagnosis
  • Sinusitis / surgery
  • Sinusitis / veterinary
  • Surgical Flaps / veterinary


This article has been cited 2 times.
  1. Haltmayer E, Simhofer H. Progressive ossifying paranasal sinus mass of suspected traumatic origin in a mare: Surgical treatment and follow-up.. Can Vet J 2018 Aug;59(8):866-870.
    pubmed: 30104778
  2. Gordon DL, Radtke CL. Treatment of chronic sinusitis in a horse with systemic and intra-sinus antimicrobials.. Can Vet J 2017 Mar;58(3):289-292.
    pubmed: 28246419