Journal of genetics2005; 84(3); 295-301; doi: 10.1007/BF02715799

Genetic diversity and bottleneck studies in the Marwari horse breed.

Abstract: Genetic diversity within the Marwari breed of horses was evaluated using 26 different microsatellite pairs with 48 DNA samples from unrelated horses. This molecular characterisation was undertaken to evaluate the problem of genetic bottlenecks also, if any, in this breed. The estimated mean (-/+ s.e.) allelic diversity was 5.9 (-/+ 2.24), with a total of 133 alleles. A high level of genetic variability within this breed was observed in terms of high values of mean (-/+ s.e.) effective number of alleles (3.3 -/+ 1.27), observed heterozygosity (0.5306 -/+ 0.22), expected Levene's heterozygosity (0.6612 -/+ 0.15), expected Nei's heterozygosity (0.6535 -/+ 0.14), and polymorphism information content (0.6120 -/+ 0.03). Low values of Wright's fixation index, F(IS) (0.2433 -/+ 0.05) indicated low levels of inbreeding. This basic study indicated the existence of substantial genetic diversity in the Marwari horse population. No significant genotypic linkage disequilibrium was detected across the population, suggesting no evidence of linkage between loci. A normal 'L' shaped distribution of mode-shift test, non-significant heterozygote excess on the basis of different models, as revealed from Sign, Standardized differences and Wilcoxon sign rank tests as well as non-significant M ratio value suggested that there was no recent bottleneck in the existing Marwari breed population, which is important information for equine breeders. This study also revealed that the Marwari breed can be differentiated from some other exotic breeds of horses on the basis of three microsatellite primers.
Publication Date: 2005-12-31 PubMed ID: 16385161DOI: 10.1007/BF02715799Google Scholar: Lookup
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  • Journal Article


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This research focuses on assessing genetic diversity within the Marwari horse breed using genetic markers, noting high levels of variation and no significant genetic bottlenecking. It also demonstrates that the Marwari breed can be genetically distinguished from other horse breeds.

Objective and Methodology

  • The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity within the Marwari horse breed.
  • The researchers used 26 different microsatellite pairs to analyze the DNA samples from 48 unrelated horses.
  • They also examined the potential issue of genetic bottlenecks in this breed.

Key Findings

  • The researchers discovered a high level of genetic variability in the Marwari horse breed.
  • They observed a total of 133 different alleles with an estimated mean allelic diversity of 5.9.
  • The high values of various parameters such as effective number of alleles, observed heterozygosity, expected Levene’s heterozygosity, expected Nei’s heterozygosity, and polymorphism information content all pointed to this high variability.
  • Due to low values of Wright’s fixation index, F(IS), low levels of inbreeding were indicated in these animals.


  • The results indicated that there is substantial genetic diversity in the Marwari horse population, suggesting a healthy breeding population with no significant genetic bottlenecks to potentially hinder future genetic diversity.
  • No major genotypic linkage disequilibrium was detected, proving that there is no significant correlation/association between different genetic loci.
  • Three microsatellite primers would be enough to distinguish the Marwari breed from other horse breeds, which might be valuable for breeding and conservation efforts.

Cite This Article

Gupta AK, Chauhan M, Tandon SN. (2005). Genetic diversity and bottleneck studies in the Marwari horse breed. J Genet, 84(3), 295-301.


ISSN: 0022-1333
NlmUniqueID: 2985113R
Country: India
Language: English
Volume: 84
Issue: 3
Pages: 295-301

Researcher Affiliations

Gupta, A K
  • National Research Centre on Equines, Sirsa Road, Hisar 125 001, India.
Chauhan, M
    Tandon, S N

      MeSH Terms

      • Alleles
      • Animals
      • Breeding
      • Genetic Markers
      • Genetic Variation
      • Genetics, Population
      • Horses / blood
      • Horses / genetics
      • Microsatellite Repeats / genetics
      • Models, Theoretical
      • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods


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