Topic:Equine Science

The Role of an Equine Nutritionist in Equine Health, Performance and Wellbeing: Ideas stemming from an Equine Science Society Symposium Workshop.
Journal of equine veterinary science    March 15, 2024   105047 doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2024.105047
Pratt-Phillips SE, Liburt NR.In the United States, there is little clarity on the qualifications and availability of equine nutritionists. Currently, no regulatory body exists for formal credentialing outside of veterinary medicine. Most equine nutritionists are not veterinarians but do have advanced scientific degrees (Master of Science and/or Doctor of Philosophy) in the field of Animal Science. However, not all reporting to be equine nutritionists have formal education in the field of equine nutrition. To discuss this, a workshop was held at the 2023 Equine Science Society (ESS) meeting. The purpose of this discussion ...
The state of coursework on horses in human services at universities and colleges in the United States: a scoping review.
Frontiers in veterinary science    November 28, 2023   Volume 10 1305353 doi: 10.3389/fvets.2023.1305353
Connolly K, Ekholm Fry N.An increasing number of universities and colleges in the United States are offering coursework on adaptive/therapeutic riding and the incorporation of horses in human service areas such as psychotherapy, education, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and speech-language pathology. The first study to identify coursework in these areas was published in 2018. In order to track development over time, we conducted a replication study to determine the prevalence of coursework on horses in human services at higher education institutions. Information gathered for the 2021-2022 academic year includ...
Detection of adeno-associated viral DNA in equine post-administration frozen blood and plasma samples after long-term storage.
Drug testing and analysis    September 6, 2023   doi: 10.1002/dta.3569
Maniego J, Pesko B, Habershon-Butcher J, Hincks P, Taylor P, Stewart G, Proudman C, Ryder E.Gene doping in horses is a threat to the fairness in sport and has serious implications for animal welfare. To investigate the effect of long-term storage on the detection of AAV in plasma and whole blood, samples from an administration study using an adeno-associated virus serotype 6 expressing green fluorescence protein (AAV6-GFP) were stored at -20°C for 8 months before analysis. The AAV vector was detected in stored plasma samples, following the same detection profile as the fresh plasma samples. The stored blood showed lower overall DNA detection but followed the same detection profile ...
Multiparametric Flow Cytometry for Determination of Viability, Caspase 3 and 7 Activity, and Lipid Peroxidation Adduct (4-Hydroxynonenal) in Equine Spermatozoa.
Current protocols    September 6, 2023   Volume 3, Issue 9 e885 doi: 10.1002/cpz1.885
da Silva CMB, Cano FEM, Gaitskell-Phillips G, Vega FJP.Flow cytometry is a powerful tool for the analysis of cell samples formed of multipopulations, such as spermatozoa. In recent years, multiparametric cytometers have evolved, allowing the study of different cellular characteristics, such as protein expression, DNA analysis, or mitochondrial activity. Whether using traditional fluorescent dyes or fluorophore-conjugated antibodies, each cell or cellular component is individually stained, the sample is analyzed at high velocities, and then is displayed and interpreted in a dot-plot. We hereby describe the procedure to perform a multiparametric flo...
Advances in dental management in the equine geriatric patient: strategies for improved welfare.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    September 6, 2023   1-7 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.06.0350
du Toit N.Geriatric horses have a high prevalence of dental disease, which is a culmination of age-related dental changes and dental disease throughout the life of the horse that may have long-term consequences. Wear abnormalities, diastemata with periodontal disease, pulpitis and endodontic disease, infundibular caries, and equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis become more prevalent with age. Recognition of age-related dental disease at an early stage can help to treat and possibly preserve teeth for longer. With a natural decrease in masticatory efficiency, it is even more importan...
Plasma melatonin concentration during the early post-partum period in Thoroughbred mares and their foals.
Acta veterinaria Hungarica    September 6, 2023   doi: 10.1556/004.2023.00883
Gu00e1spu00e1rdy A, Gallagher G, Bartha B, Cseh S, Fekete SG, Somosku0151i B.The authors aimed to determine the plasma melatonin concentration in mares and their new-born foals in the early post-partum period. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of 53 mare-foal pairs within twelve hours after parturition. Plasma melatonin levels were measured by ELISA. The melatonin concentration, adjusted for the moment of parturition using a generalised linear model, was 34.58 pg mL-1 in mares. It was significantly lower (27.63 pg mL-1) in the new-born foals. However, the melatonin concentration declined differently by the end of the twelve hours, it decreased less in...
Fine-scale collective movements reveal present, past and future dynamics of a multilevel society in Przewalski’s horses.
Nature communications    September 5, 2023   Volume 14, Issue 1 5096 doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-40523-3
Studying animal societies needs detailed observation of many individuals, but technological advances offer new opportunities in this field. Here, we present a state-of-the-art drone observation of a multilevel herd of Przewalski's horses, consisting of harems (one-male, multifemale groups). We track, in high spatio-temporal resolution, the movements of 238 individually identified horses on drone videos, and combine movement analyses with demographic data from two decades of population monitoring. Analysis of collective movements reveals how the structure of the herd's social network is related...
Unilateral right mammary gland enlargement in a multiparous, pregnant 14-year-old American Quarter Horse mare.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    September 4, 2023   1-2 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.08.0459
Castillo J, Hilburger L, Rosenberg L, Cheong SH, Duhamel GE, de Amorim MD.No abstract available
Retroperitoneoscopy of the presacral space in horses: Surgical access and anatomy.
Equine veterinary journal    September 1, 2023   doi: 10.1111/evj.13994
Meurice A, Pujol R, De Fourmestraux C, Coquillon M, Tessier C.Surgical approaches to the equine rectum and perirectal area are described in the literature. However, surgeries in this region can be challenging. Objective: To describe the surgical anatomy of the presacral space and to evaluate its access using a retroperitoneoscopic approach. Methods: Ex vivo experiment. Methods: Preliminary dissections were performed in two cadavers to define the boundaries of the presacral space and to determine portal locations for the surgical approach. After that, nine cadavers were used for experimental presacral retroperitoneoscopic procedure in a standing position....
Comparison of incisional bursting strength of a bidirectional absorbable knotless suture material versus a standard continuous absorbable suture material for closure of the equine linea alba.
Veterinary surgery : VS    September 1, 2023   doi: 10.1111/vsu.14022
Bellitto NA, Oliver FB, Pollock PJ.To evaluate the use of bidirectional knotless barbed suture material for closure of the equine linea alba. Methods: Laboratory study. Methods: Adult light horse cadavers (n = 24). Methods: A 25 cm incision was made through the linea alba, and a 200 L polyurethane bladder was positioned within the abdomen. The linea alba was closed either using USP2/EP5 bidirectional polydioxanone barbed suture or USP2/EP5 standard polydioxanone suture in a simple continuous pattern. Closure time was recorded for each suture type. The bladder was air-insufflated at 40 L/min, and the pressure at body w...
Transcriptome analyses reveal transcriptional profiles of horse oocytes before and after in vitro maturation.
Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene    August 31, 2023   doi: 10.1111/rda.14462
Song X, Jiang H, Lv P, Cui K, Liu Q, Yin S, Liu H, Li Z.Oocyte in vitro maturation is necessary for the study and application of animal-assisted reproduction technology in animal reproduction and breeding. The comprehensive transcriptional profile of equine oocyte maturated in vitro has not been fully mined yet, which makes many key transcriptional events still unidentified. Here, Smart-seq2 was performed to analyse the gene expression pattern and the underlying regulatory mechanism of horse germinal vesicle (GV) and in vitro metaphase II (MII) oocytes. The results showed that 6402 genes (2640 up-regulated and 3762 down-regulated in MII samples com...
Horse serum potentiates cellular viability and improves indomethacin-induced adipogenesis in equine subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs).
International journal of veterinary science and medicine    August 29, 2023   Volume 11, Issue 1 94-105 doi: 10.1080/23144599.2023.2248805
Petrova V, Yonkova P, Simeonova G, Vachkova E.Subcutaneous fat tissue is an accessible and abundant source of multipotent stem cells for cell therapy in regenerative medicine. Successful trilineage differentiation is required to define the stemness features of the obtained mesenchymal cells, and adipogenesis is a part of it. Since indomethacin is bound to serum albumin, replacing foetal bovine serum (FBS) with horse serum (HS) in adipogenic induction protocols would suppress its cytotoxic effect and reveal a better adipogenic potential in equine MSCs. The equine subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) were separately induced in adi...
Effects of different hay feeders, availability of roughage on abnormal behaviors and cortisol circadian rhythm in horses kept in dry lots.
Journal of equine veterinary science    August 23, 2023   104911 doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2023.104911
Seabra JC, Hess T, Martinez do Vale M, Spercoski KM, Brooks R, Dittrich JR.Free choice forage could be the best option regarding horses' welfare but can lead to increased body weight (BW), and waste of hay. Automatic box feeders (BF) and slow feeders (SF) decrease food waste, but it is unknown how these affect the horses' time-budget (TB). This study compared the effects of feeding free choice hay (FC), to a SF and an automated BF on the horses' cortisol circadian rhythm (CCR) and behavior by 24-h continuous behavioral sampling (CBS). The study was designed as a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 15 polo horses divided into 3 groups, for 15 days on each treatment. E...
Use of Stem Cells for the Treatment of Musculoskeletal Injuries in Horses.
The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice    August 23, 2023   S0749-0739(23)00051-2 doi: 10.1016/j.cveq.2023.07.003
Watts AE.Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used as a regenerative therapy in horses for musculoskeletal injury since the late 1990s and in some regions are standard of care for certain injuries. Yet, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved MSC therapeutic in the United States for horses. In humans, lack of regulatory approval in the United States has been caused by failure of late-phase clinical trials to demonstrate consistent efficacy, perhaps because of nonuniformity of MSC preparation and application techniques. This article discusses clinical evidence for musculoskeletal applications of ...
Acute exercise in a hot environment increases heat shock protein 70 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α mRNA in Thoroughbred horse skeletal muscle.
Frontiers in veterinary science    August 21, 2023   Volume 10 1230212 doi: 10.3389/fvets.2023.1230212
Ebisuda Y, Mukai K, Takahashi Y, Yoshida T, Kawano A, Matsuhashi T, Miyata H, Kuwahara M, Ohmura H.Heat acclimatization or acclimation training in horses is practiced to reduce physiological strain and improve exercise performance in the heat, which can involve metabolic improvement in skeletal muscle. However, there is limited information concerning the acute signaling responses of equine skeletal muscle after exercise in a hot environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that exercise in hot conditions induces greater changes in heat shock proteins and mitochondrial-related signaling in equine skeletal muscle compared with exercise in cool conditions. Fifteen t...
Integrated analysis of transcriptome and proteome for exploring mechanism of promoting proliferation of equine satellite cells associated with leucine.
Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part D, Genomics & proteomics    August 19, 2023   Volume 48 101118 doi: 10.1016/j.cbd.2023.101118
Xing J, Xie L, Qi X, Liu G, Akhtar MF, Li X, Bou G, Bai D, Zhao Y, Dugarjaviin M, Zhang X.The proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are necessary for the development of mature skeletal muscle. Leucine (Leu) is both an essential amino acid (EAA) and a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), which has attracted worldwide attention due to its ability to repair and become new fibers. We separated the equine SCs into the control group (CON) and the Leu-supplemented group (LEU), which the cells were cultured in Leu-deprived and Leu-supplemented media respectively. We combined the transcriptome (RNA-Seq) and quantitative proteome (TMT) profiling analyses on ...
Rotation of liquid-preserved artificial insemination doses on roller benches affects sperm quality during storage in stallions.
Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene    August 19, 2023   doi: 10.1111/rda.14456
Dierberger H, Pieper L, Jung M, Schulze M.Appropriate stallion semen handling is of great importance in equine artificial insemination (AI) industry. Optimal treatment of AI doses is aiming for best sperm preservation by excluding strong environmental influences and adding media that favour sperm survival. One method widely used in stallion sperm handling is the rotation of liquid-preserved semen samples on roller benches during storage. As previous studies in boars give rise to the fact that rotation should not be considered beneficial for spermatozoa anymore, the present study investigated the influence of continuous rotation of dil...
CKM intron: an appropriate marker for the determination of the genetic relationships among horse populations and breeds.
Animal biotechnology    August 18, 2023   1-9 doi: 10.1080/10495398.2023.2247445
Chen J, Wang H, Li J, Liu S, Li B, Sun Y, Wang H, Manglai D.To date, the origins, domestication, and genetic structure of Chinese Mongolian horses (CMH) are poorly understood. Furthermore, there have been sparse reports on the genetic differences between CMH and Thoroughbred. In order to determine their genetic structure, understand their genetic relationships, and explore their domestication processes, we performed an extensive survey of creatine kinase (muscle isoenzyme; variations among six populations of indigenous CMH, cultivated Sanhe horses, and imported Thoroughbred. Twenty-three single-nucleotide polymorphisms were found among the 343 horse s...
Use of Doppler ultrasonography for selection of recipients in embryo transfer programs in horses.
Theriogenology    August 18, 2023   Volume 211 142-150 doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2023.08.012
We aimed to evaluate the impact of corpus luteum (CL) and uterine characteristics accessed by B-mode and Color-Doppler ultrasonography in recipient mares at the time of embryo transfer (ET) on pregnancy outcomes. Recipient mares (n = 110), between days 3-9 after spontaneous ovulation, received a fresh embryo. Immediately before ET, the reproductive system was assessed by transrectal palpation for the following parameters: uterine tone (0-3), CL echogenicity (0-6), CL type (homogeneous, trabecular or anechoic center), luteal area (cm), uterine echogenicity (0-3), uterine edema (0-3), luteal b...
Segmental analysis and long-term monitoring of vadadustat in equine hair for the purpose of doping control.
Journal of analytical toxicology    August 18, 2023   bkad057 doi: 10.1093/jat/bkad057
Ishii H, Shibuya M, Kusano K, Sone Y, Kamiya T, Wakuno A, Ito H, Miyata K, Yamada M, Leung GN.Vadadustat is a newly launched hypoxia-inducible factor stabilizer with anti-anemia and erythropoietic effects; however, its use in horses is expressly forbidden in both racing and equestrian competitions. Following our previous report on the pharmacokinetic study of vadadustat in horse plasma and urine, a long-term longitudinal analysis of vadadustat in horse hair after nasoesophageal administration (3 g/day for 3 days) to three thoroughbred mares is described in this study. Our main objective is to further extend the detection period of vadadustat for the purpose of doping control. Three...
Assessing the impact of draught load pulling on welfare in equids.
Frontiers in veterinary science    August 17, 2023   Volume 10 1214015 doi: 10.3389/fvets.2023.1214015
Bukhari SSUH, Parkes RSV.About 112 million working equids are the source of income for 600 million people globally. Many equids are used for pulling loads (up to 15,000 kg per day) to transport goods. Most of them are associated with brick kilns, mining, and agriculture industries in developing countries. They may suffer from welfare issues such as overloading, being beaten, and being forced to work for long periods. These issues may occur due to a poor understanding of load-pulling equids. Understanding their capabilities and the elements that influence them is critical for efficient performance and welfare. The me...
Genetic characterisation of the Connemara pony and the Warmblood horse using a within-breed clustering approach.
Genetics, selection, evolution : GSE    August 17, 2023   Volume 55, Issue 1 60 doi: 10.1186/s12711-023-00827-w
Lindsay-McGee V, Sanchez-Molano E, Banos G, Clark EL, Piercy RJ, Psifidi A.The Connemara pony (CP) is an Irish breed that has experienced varied selection by breeders over the last fifty years, with objectives ranging from the traditional hardy pony to an agile athlete. We compared these ponies with well-studied Warmblood (WB) horses, which are also selectively bred for athletic performance but with a much larger census population. Using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and whole-genome sequencing data from 116 WB (94 UK WB and 22 European WB) and 36 CP (33 UK CP and 3 US CP), we studied the genomic diversity, inbreeding and population structure of th...
The Triple-E Model: Advancing Equestrian Research with Perspectives from One Health.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    August 16, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 16 2642 doi: 10.3390/ani13162642
Keener MM, Tumlin KI.Equestrian sport has various welfare issues and educational needs. To address these complex interactions, we propose an integrated approach called the Triple-E Model, which focuses on the equine, equestrian, and environmental triad. A literature review of existing models suggests that complexities of these interactions are overlooked, despite the significant impact of equine industries on economics, healthcare, and animal welfare. This paper discusses current models and theories used to evaluate equine-equestrian-environmental interactions and introduces the Triple-E Model to foster multidisci...
Dynamics of training and acute exercise-induced shifts in muscular glucose transporter (GLUT) 4, 8, and 12 expression in locomotion versus posture muscles in healthy horses.
Frontiers in physiology    August 16, 2023   Volume 14 1256217 doi: 10.3389/fphys.2023.1256217
Vidal Moreno de Vega C, Lemmens D, de Meeu00fbs d'Argenteuil C, Boshuizen B, de Maru00e9 L, Leybaert L, Goethals K, de Oliveira JE, Hosotani G....Important changes in glucose transporter (GLUT) expression should be expected if the glucose influx plays a pivotal role in fuelling or connecting metabolic pathways that are upregulated in response to exercise. The aim was to assess GLUT4, 8, and 12 dynamics in response to training and acute exercise. Sixteen untrained Standardbred mares (3-4 year) performed an incremental SET at the start and end of 8 weeks harness training. M. pectoralis (PM) and M. vastus lateralis (VL) muscle biopsies were taken before and after each SET, allowing for comparing rest and acute samples in untrained (UT) ...
An extensive screening method for the identification and quantitation of ecdysteroids in equine urine and plasma using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.
Rapid communications in mass spectrometry : RCM    August 15, 2023   Volume 37, Issue 18 e9611 doi: 10.1002/rcm.9611
Karatt TK, Sathiq MA, Laya S, Ajeebsanu MPM, Karakka Kal AK, Subhahar MB, Perwad Z.Recently, there has been a report suggesting that ecdysteroids can enhance sports performance, making them relevant substances in doping control. Hence, it is imperative to examine the analytical characteristics of ecdysteroids in biological samples to identify their misuse in competitive sports. Methods: To assess the doping of ecdysteroids such as ecdysone, ecdysterone, ponasterone A, turkesterone, and ajugasterone C, a fast and sensitive extraction and detection method was developed, optimized, and validated using equine urine and plasma. Different extraction techniques, namely, solid-phase...
Genome-Wide Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Genomic Diversity and Runs of Homozygosity for Selection Signatures in Equine Breeds.
Genes    August 14, 2023   Volume 14, Issue 8 1623 doi: 10.3390/genes14081623
Bhardwaj A, Tandon G, Pal Y, Sharma NK, Nayan V, Soni S, Iquebal MA, Jaiswal S, Legha RA, Talluri TR, Bhattacharya TK, Kumar D, Rai A, Tripathi BN.The horse, one of the most domesticated animals, has been used for several purposes, like transportation, hunting, in sport, or for agriculture-related works. Kathiawari, Marwari, Manipuri, Zanskari, Bhutia, Spiti, and Thoroughbred are the main breeds of horses, particularly due to their agroclimatic adaptation and role in any kind of strong physical activity, and these characteristics are majorly governed by genetic factors. The genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of these Indian equine breeds using microsatellite markers have been reported, but further studies exploring the SNP d...
Genetic architecture and polygenic risk score prediction of degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis (DSLD) in the Peruvian Horse.
Frontiers in genetics    August 14, 2023   Volume 14 1201628 doi: 10.3389/fgene.2023.1201628
Momen M, Brauer K, Patterson MM, Sample SJ, Binversie EE, Davis BW, Cothran EG, Rosa GJM, Brounts SH, Muir P. Spontaneous rupture of tendons and ligaments is common in several species including humans. In horses, degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis (DSLD) is an important acquired idiopathic disease of a major energy-storing tendon-like structure. DSLD risk is increased in several breeds, including the Peruvian Horse. Affected horses have often been used for breeding before the disease is apparent. Breed predisposition suggests a substantial genetic contribution, but heritability and genetic architecture of DSLD have not been determined. To identify genomic regions associated with DSLD, we recr...
Habitat use by semi-feral Konik horses on wetlands-three-year GPS study.
Environmental monitoring and assessment    August 11, 2023   Volume 195, Issue 9 1033 doi: 10.1007/s10661-023-11605-y
Anna C, Martyna P, Marcin S, Dawid W.Free-ranging grazers are increasingly being introduced to areas of high natural value, such as wetlands. There is also growing attention that has been paid to the historical role of herbivores in shaping ecosystems and landscapes. Even though studies on the grazing of free-range horses were carried out in different regions and climates, still little is known about their habitat selection on heterogeneous marshy areas in the temperate region of Europe. The aim of this study was to investigate the habitat use by contemporary Konik horses during the growing season on the basis of three-year GPS d...
Wolf contact in horses at permanent pasture in Germany.
PloS one    August 10, 2023   Volume 18, Issue 8 e0289767 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0289767
Krueger K, Gruentjens T, Hempel E.Wolves returned to Germany in 2000, leading to fear in German horse owners that their horses could be in danger of wolf attacks or panic-like escapes from pastures when sighting wolves. However, reports from southern European countries indicate that wolf predation on horses diminishes with increasing presence of wildlife. Therefore, we conducted a long-term, filed observation between January 2015 and July 2022 on 13 non breeding riding horses, mares and geldings, kept permanently on two pastures within the range of wildlife and a stable wolf pack with annual offspring. Wildlife cameras at the ...
Molecular insights into the lipid-carbohydrates metabolism switch under the endurance effort in Arabian horses.
Equine veterinary journal    August 10, 2023   doi: 10.1111/evj.13984
Myu0107ka G, Ropka-Molik K, Cywiu0144ska A, Szmatou0142a T, Stefaniuk-Szmukier M.Recent studies have shown that in Arabian horse muscle, long-term exercise-induced expression of genes related to fatty acid degradation and the downregulation of genes belonging to the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and insulin signalling pathways. Long-lasting physical exertion may trigger the metabolism to switch the main energy source from carbohydrates to lipids due to higher caloric content. Objective: To describe the metabolism adaptation at the whole transcriptome of blood to endurance effort in Arabian horses. Methods: In vivo experiment. Methods: Venous blood samples from 10 Arabian hors...
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