Topic:Disease Management

Serum concentrations of selenium, copper, and zinc in neonatal foals: Influence of failure of passive transfer and age-related changes.
The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne    May 2, 2024   Volume 65, Issue 5 481-487 
Stahl LT, Mu00fcller A, Krohn J, Bu00fcttner K, Wehrend A.An adequate supply of trace elements is very important for equine neonates, as deficiencies can lead to health problems and even death. Unassigned: This study investigated serum concentrations of selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in neonatal foals up to the 8th day of life. The influences of disease, age, and failure of passive transfer (FPT) on these concentrations were analyzed. Unassigned: Serum concentrations of Se, Cu, and Zn were determined from blood samples of 93 foals by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The foals were divided into 2 groups based on health...
COVID-19 effects on horses in-transition: A survey analysis of United States equine industry perspectives.
Journal of equine veterinary science    April 29, 2024   105077 doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2024.105077
Esterl-Byrne LL, Huseman CJ, Haynes C, Kinman LA, Jones TN.The welfare of unwanted horses presents a significant concern for the equine industry. However, there is a lack of research on how unwanted horses are affected by major crises. The drastic changes that resulted from the COVID-19 pandemic presented ample opportunity to investigate how unwanted horses are impacted by challenging circumstances. Study objectives were to evaluate the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on the unwanted horse population and determine the current perceptions of horses in-transition. A 23-question online survey designed using Qualtrics was administered electronically to adults ...
Development of multiplex gold nanoparticles biosensors for ultrasensitive detection and genotyping of equine herpes viruses.
Scientific reports    September 13, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 1 15140 doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-41918-4
Ghoniem SM, ElZorkany HE, Hagag NM, El-Deeb AH, Shahein MA, Hussein HA.Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) biosensors can detect low viral loads and differentiate between viruses types, enabling early diagnosis and effective disease management. In the present study, we developed GNPs biosensors with two different capping agent, citrate-GNPs biosensors and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-GNPs biosensors for detection of EHV-1 and EHV-4 in multiplex real time PCR (rPCR). Citrate-GNPs and PVP-GNPs biosensors can detect dilution 10 of EHV-1 with mean Cycle threshold (Ct) 11.7 and 9.6, respectively and one copy as limit of detection, while citrate-GNPs and PVP-GNPs biosensors can de...
Advances in dental management in the equine geriatric patient: strategies for improved welfare.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    September 6, 2023   1-7 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.06.0350
du Toit N.Geriatric horses have a high prevalence of dental disease, which is a culmination of age-related dental changes and dental disease throughout the life of the horse that may have long-term consequences. Wear abnormalities, diastemata with periodontal disease, pulpitis and endodontic disease, infundibular caries, and equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis become more prevalent with age. Recognition of age-related dental disease at an early stage can help to treat and possibly preserve teeth for longer. With a natural decrease in masticatory efficiency, it is even more importan...
Flemish equine veterinarians’ perceptions on the use of and client communication about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine.
Equine veterinary journal    September 2, 2023   doi: 10.1111/evj.13992
Keller P, Hudders L, Decloedt A.Complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) is increasingly popular in horses. As CAVM usage could have risks, client-veterinarian communication about CAVM is crucial. Objective: Evaluating equine veterinarians' attitude towards CAVM, their CAVM usage and veterinarian-client communication about CAVM. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A telephone survey was conducted among equine veterinarians providing ambulatory care on a daily or weekly basis. The first section of the survey included questions about the veterinarians' attitude towards CAVM and their CAVM usage. The second...
The effectiveness of hippotherapy simulation exercises for muscle strength, disease activity and quality of life in sedentary adults with ankylosing spondylitis.
Annals of medicine    August 29, 2023   Volume 55, Issue 2 2249822 doi: 10.1080/07853890.2023.2249822
Salbau015f E, Karahan AY.Newly created systems called hippotherapy simulators (HS) mimic the primitive movements of a live horse. As they are new systems, research examining their usefulness has been well received. The aim of this study is to research the effects of HS on disease activity, quality of life and muscle strength in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Unassigned: In a prospective, assessor-blinded, block-randomized trial, 48 AS patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either HS or conventional home (CH) exercise therapy. All Participants received 48 sessions, that is 4 sessions a we...
Ferret Models for Henipavirus Infection.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)    August 23, 2023   Volume 2682 205-217 doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-3283-3_15
Rockx B, Mire CE.Henipaviruses are emerging zoonotic viruses that can cause outbreaks of severe respiratory and neurological disease in humans and animals such as horses. The mechanism by which these viruses can cause disease remain largely unknown and to date there are no therapeutics or vaccines approved for use in humans. Nipah virus is listed on the World Health Organization R & D Blueprint list of epidemic threats. In order to advance the availability of effective therapeutics and vaccines and medicines that can be used to save lives and avert large scale crises, animal models are required which recap...
History, Rest and Exercise Score (HRE-S) for assessment of disease severity in horses with trigeminal-mediated headshaking.
Equine veterinary journal    August 22, 2023   doi: 10.1111/evj.13986
Kloock T, Pickles KJ, Roberts V, Uhlendorf F, Twele L, Wilkens HL, Stehle E, Feige K, Niebuhr T.In horses with trigeminal-mediated headshaking (TMHS), clinical signs are likely to be expression of neuropathic facial pain. Currently, subjective assessment of disease severity is used as measure of compromise of animal's welfare. Objective: To develop and validate a precise scoring system for TMHS: History, Rest and Exercise Score (HRE-S). The HRE-S consists of three subscores: history score (H-S), resting score (R-S) and exercise score (E-S). Methods: Retrospective observational study. Methods: Seven masked observers with different experience used HRE-S to score 40 video recordings taken d...
Case Report in Equine: Highlighting the Benefits of Medisca CopaSil in Burn Scar Management.
International journal of pharmaceutical compounding    August 18, 2023   Volume 27, Issue 4 270-276 
Heuerman J, Haiub H, Cull E, Lupatini R, Shrum B, Sidhu R.In this case report, we highlight the benefits of Medisca CopaSil application for scar healing in a horse having sustained second-degree burn injuries covering most of its back. The application of CopaSil started three months after sustaining the burn injury when silver sulfadiazine topical cream treatment showed no significant improvement. CopaSil is formulated with ingredients that may help in reducing inflammation and accelerate healing by modulating the immune response. After using CopaSil for six months, the horse's back was healed, and the hair began to regrow. The complete healing...
Current and Future Advances in the Detection and Surveillance of Biosecurity-Relevant Equine Bacterial Diseases Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP).
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    August 18, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 16 2663 doi: 10.3390/ani13162663
Knox A, Zerna G, Beddoe T.Horses play an important role throughout the world, whether for work, culture, or leisure, providing an ever-growing significant contribution to the economy. The increase in importation and movement of horses, both nationally and internationally, has inevitably allowed for the global equine industry to grow. Subsequently, however, the potential for transmission of fatal equine bacterial diseases has also escalated, and devasting outbreaks continue to occur. To prevent such events, disease surveillance and diagnosis must be heightened throughout the industry. Current common, or "gold-standard" ...
Antibiotic usage in 14 equine practices over a 10-year period (2012-2021).
Equine veterinary journal    August 16, 2023   doi: 10.1111/evj.13988
Tallon RE, Whitt B, Bladon BM.Monitoring antibiotic usage is an important part of tackling antimicrobial resistance. The use of computerised records for monitoring has been previously described in the equine sector but there is currently no consensus on metrics used to report usage. Objective: To document antibiotic use in equine practices in the United Kingdom over a 10-year period using commercially available practice management software. Methods: Retrospective survey. Methods: A custom antibiotic usage report was created using Eclipse® practice management software. Participating practices were given instructions on how...
Survival of formalin intoxication in a 13-year-old Thoroughbred gelding.
Equine veterinary journal    August 16, 2023   doi: 10.1111/evj.13982
Lovett A, Vokes J, Loghides N, Johnstone L, Sykes B.Formalin intoxication via the gastrointestinal route has not been previously reported in the horse. Whereas ingestion of formalin in humans, although rare, is well documented. Majority of human cases are either accidental, suicidal or homicidal and often lead to fatality, with a reported lethal formaldehyde dose equating to 0.12 - 0.16 g/kg bwt. Objective: To describe a single case report of the clinical management of an adult horse referred to a veterinary teaching hospital following accidental administration of 10% formalin via nasogastric tube. Methods: A 13-year-old Thoroughbred gelding or...
Retained efficacy of ivermectin against cyathostomins in Swedish horse establishments practicing selective anthelmintic treatment.
Veterinary parasitology    August 14, 2023   Volume 322 110007 doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2023.110007
Alm YH, Osterman-Lind E, Martin F, Lindfors R, Roepstorff N, Hedenstru00f6m U, Fredriksson I, Halvarsson P, Tydu00e9n E.Cyathostominae are ubiquitous to grazing horses and regarded the most prevalent internal parasite in the horse. Unfortunately, decades of indiscriminate use of anthelmintic drugs have resulted in the development of resistance in cyathostomins to all currently available drug groups, the most recent being a documented lack of efficacy to the macrocyclic lactones (ML). In vivo determination of anthelmintic resistance in horses most often utilises the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Further, a shortened egg reappearance period (ERP) can indicate a change in response to the applied treatme...
Distribution of West Nile virus cases in horses reveals different spatiotemporal patterns in eastern and western Canada.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    August 9, 2023   1-9 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.05.0259
Levasseur A, Arsenault J, Paru00e9 J.West Nile virus (WNV) became notifiable in horses in 2003 in Canada and has been reported every year since. The objective of this study was to describe the spatiotemporal distribution of WNV in horses between 2003 and 2020 in Canada. Methods: The 848 symptomatic and laboratory-confirmed WNV cases in horses reported to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency between 2003 and 2020. Methods: Canada was divided into eastern and western regions for analysis. For each case, location and date of notification were captured. Triennial maps were made to describe the spatiotemporal distribution and expansion...
Artificial intelligence: Is it wizardry, witchcraft, or a helping hand for an equine veterinarian?
Equine veterinary journal    August 8, 2023   Volume 55, Issue 5 719-722 doi: 10.1111/evj.13969
Alexeenko V, Jeevaratnam K.No abstract available
Effects of Bit Chewing on Gastric Emptying, Small Intestinal Transit, and Orocecal Transit Times in Clinically Normal Horses.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    August 4, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 15 2518 doi: 10.3390/ani13152518
Patton ME, Andrews FM, Bogers SH, Wong D, McKenzie HC, Werre SR, Byron CR.Ileus is a common life-threatening problem in horses, and currently available treatments may be ineffective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether bit chewing, a form of sham feeding, decreases the gastric emptying time (GET), small intestinal transit time (SITT), and total orocecal transit time (OCTT) in clinically normal horses in a prospective crossover study. Nine healthy horses were acclimated and fed a standardized diet. Following 24 h of fasting, self-contained video endoscopy capsules and acetaminophen were administered into the stomach via a nasogastric tube. Each horse u...
Diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders and thyroid hormone supplementation in adult horses and foals.
Equine veterinary journal    August 3, 2023   doi: 10.1111/evj.13981
Bertin FR, Frank N, Breuhaus BA, Schott HC, Kritchevsky JE.Equine thyroid disorders pose a diagnostic challenge in clinical practice because of the effects of nonthyroidal factors on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, and the horse's ability to tolerate wide fluctuations in thyroid hormone concentrations and survive without a thyroid gland. While benign thyroid tumours are common in older horses, other disorders like primary hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism in adult horses and congenital hypothyroidism in foals are rare. There is a common misunderstanding regarding hypothyroidism in adult horses, especially when associated with the clinical pro...
Airway Hyperresponsiveness, but Not Bronchoalveolar Inflammatory Cytokines Profiles, Is Modified at the Subclinical Onset of Severe Equine Asthma.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    August 1, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 15 2485 doi: 10.3390/ani13152485
Frippiat T, Art T, Tosi I.Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation are both observed in human and equine asthma. The aim of this study was to assess the timeline and relationship of both features at the subclinical onset of severe equine asthma (SEA). First, the repeatability of the pulmonary function test (PFT) using impulse oscillometry system, and the methacholine bronchoprovocation test (BPT) were assessed at a 1-day interval on six SEA horses in clinical remission and six control horses. Then, clinical and ancillary tests were performed before and after a 1-week low-dust environmental challenge, including...
Equine Psittacosis and the Emergence of Chlamydia psittaci as an Equine Abortigenic Pathogen in Southeastern Australia: A Retrospective Data Analysis.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    July 28, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 15 2443 doi: 10.3390/ani13152443
El-Hage C, Legione A, Devlin J, Hughes K, Jenkins C, Gilkerson J. is an important zoonotic pathogen. Although primarily a pathogen of birds, from which infection can spillover into humans and other mammalian hosts, the importance of as a cause of equine reproductive loss and the risk of infection to humans in contact with infected horses are increasingly being recognised in Australia and elsewhere. Despite the risks to both human and equine health, infection in horses is incompletely understood. This study aimed to update and summarise cases of equine psittacosis in Australia in the period 2018-2022, thus addressing a knowledge gap relating to recent case...
Equine synovial sepsis laboratory submissions yield a low rate of positive bacterial culture and a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance.
American journal of veterinary research    July 17, 2023   Volume 84, Issue 8 doi: 10.2460/ajvr.23.05.0085
Pearson GB, Papa B, Mosaddegh A, Cooper H, Aprea M, Pigott J, Altier C, Cazer CL, Reesink HL.To investigate (1) variables associated with the likelihood of obtaining a positive culture, (2) commonly isolated microorganisms, and (3) antimicrobial resistance patterns of isolates from horses with presumptive synovial sepsis. Methods: Synovial fluid, synovium, and bone samples from equine cases with presumptive synovial sepsis submitted to the Cornell University Animal Health Diagnostic Center from 2000 to 2020 for microbial culture and antimicrobial sensitivity testing. Methods: Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to determine the effect of variables on the likelihood o...
Monitoring the epidemic of West Nile virus in equids in Spain, 2020-2021.
Preventive veterinary medicine    July 13, 2023   Volume 217 105975 doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2023.105975
Gonzálvez M, Franco JJ, Barbero-Moyano J, Caballero-Gómez J, Ruano MJ, Martínez R, Cano-Terriza D, García-Bocanegra I.The largest epidemic of West Nile virus (WNV) reported ever in Spain in both humans and equines occurred in 2020, affecting 77 humans and 139 equine herds. Here, we aimed to monitor the outbreaks detected in equid herds in Andalusia (southern Spain), the Spanish region where 89.9% of the outbreaks were reported, and to evaluate the virus circulation and risk factor associated with WNV exposure in the affected herds. The first WNV case was detected in mid-July 2020, the number of outbreaks peaked in mid-August and the last one was confirmed on 26th October 2020. WNV lineage 1 was detected in 12...
NC State finds compression device a promising treatment for horses.
American journal of veterinary research    July 8, 2023   Volume 84, Issue 8 ajvr.23.06.0126 doi: 10.2460/ajvr.23.06.0126
Wheeler BE.No abstract available
Host cell restriction factors of equine infectious anemia virus.
Virologica Sinica    July 5, 2023   Volume 38, Issue 4 485-496 doi: 10.1016/j.virs.2023.07.001
Wang XF, Zhang X, Ma W, Li J, Wang X.Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a member of the lentivirus genus in the Retroviridae family and is considered an animal model for HIV/AIDS research. An attenuated EIAV vaccine, which was successfully developed in the 1970s by classical serial passage techniques, is the first and only lentivirus vaccine that has been widely used to date. Restriction factors are cellular proteins that provide an early line of defense against viral replication and spread by interfering with various critical steps in the viral replication cycle. However, viruses have evolved specific mechanisms to overcom...
Molecular Detection of Animal Trypanosomes in Different Animal Species in the Visayas Region of the Philippines.
Acta parasitologica    June 27, 2023   Volume 68, Issue 3 604-611 doi: 10.1007/s11686-023-00696-9
Elata A, Galon EM, Moumouni PFA, Ybanez RHD, Mossaad E, Salces CB, Bajenting GP, Ybanez AP, Xuan X, Inoue N, Suganuma K.Animal trypanosomosis is one of the most important parasitic diseases significantly affecting the Philippine economy. It is considered by the government to be the second most important disease of livestock after fasciolosis. A PCR-based molecular survey for trypanosomes in different animals in Bohol, Philippines, was performed to assess the prevalence of trypanosomosis in the area during the rainy and dry season. Methods: A total of 269 blood samples were collected in two batches in rainy and dry season from different animal species in Ubay Stock Farm in Ubay, Bohol, the Philippines, including...
Clinical and epidemiological aspects of the infection by Babesia, Theileria and Trypanosoma species in horses from northeastern Colombia.
Ticks and tick-borne diseases    June 20, 2023   Volume 14, Issue 6 102208 doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2023.102208
Jaimes-Dueu00f1ez J, Jimu00e9nez-Leau00f1o u00c1, Enrique-Niu00f1o S, Arias-Landazu00e1bal N, Bedoya-Ru00edos M, Rangel-Pachu00f3n D.Piroplasmosis and trypanosomiasis are debilitating diseases of great economic impact on the equine industry of Latin America. Considering the lack of studies in the northeastern part of Colombia, this study aimed to determine the epidemiological, clinical and genetic features associated with infection of the Babesia, Theileria, and Trypanosoma species in horses from this geographical area. Two hundred and eighty horses from the Arauca, Meta, and Santander departments were molecularly analyzed for infection with Babesia caballi, Theileria equi, Trypanosoma evansi, and Trypanosoma vivax. Further...
Shortened strongylid egg reappearance periods in horses following macrocyclic lactone administration – The impact on parasite dynamics.
Veterinary parasitology    June 19, 2023   Volume 320 109977 doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2023.109977
Nielsen MK, Leathwick DM, Sauermann CW.Over the past three decades, equine strongylid egg reappearance periods (ERPs) have shortened substantially for macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics. The ERPs of ivermectin and moxidectin were originally reported in the 8-10 and 12-16 week ranges, respectively, but several recent studies have found them to be around 4-5 weeks for both actives. This loss of several weeks of suppressed strongylid egg output could have substantial implications for parasite control. This study made use of a computer simulation model to evaluate the impact of shortened ERPs on the anthelmintic performance of ivermecti...
Babesiosis: Current status and future perspectives in Pakistan and chemotherapy used in livestock and pet animals.
Heliyon    June 18, 2023   Volume 9, Issue 6 e17172 doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e17172
Azhar M, Gadahi JA, Bhutto B, Tunio S, Vistro WA, Tunio H, Bhutto S, Ram T.Babesiosis is a protozoal disease affect livestock and pet animals such as cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, horses, donkeys, mules, dogs, and cats. It causes severe economic losses in livestock as well as in pet animals. A large number of dairy animals are imported in order to fulfill the demands of milk, milk, meat and its products. In addition, different pet animals are transported from Pakistan to various parts of the world, therefore, it is important to identify the current status and distribution of babesiosis throughout Pakistan in order to control the disease and draw attention for futu...
Complete genomic characterization of bovine papillomavirus type 1 and 2 strains infers ongoing cross-species transmission between cattle and horses.
Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997)    June 17, 2023   Volume 298-299 106011 doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2023.106011
Gysens L, Vanmechelen B, Maes P, Martens A, Haspeslagh M.Infection with bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types 1 and 2 results in the most common skin tumor of horses, termed equine sarcoid. The persistent and recurrent nature of this tumor stands in contrast to the regressive nature of BPV-1/- 2 induced cutaneous papillomas in cattle. The circulation of horse-specific BPV-1/- 2 variants within equine populations has been suggested as a possible explanation for the difference in clinical presentation of BPV-1/- 2 infection between horses and cattle. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we identified 98 complete BPV-1/- 2 genomes using a Nanopore ...
Comments on: ‘Complications following diagnostic and therapeutic sacroiliac joint region injections in horses: A study describing clinicians’ experiences’ by Annamaria Nagy and Sue Dyson.
Equine veterinary journal    June 14, 2023   Volume 55, Issue 5 923-924 doi: 10.1111/evj.13946
Gray P.No abstract available
Overview of the causes of abortion in horses, their follow-up and management.
Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene    June 13, 2023   doi: 10.1111/rda.14406
Leon A, Pillon C, Tebourski I, Bruyas JF, Lupo C.Abortions in horses represent an important health and economic challenge for equine industry. Primary causes of abortion are divided in non-infectious and infectious. Non-infectious causes include abnormalities of foetal appendices (umbilical cord and placenta essentially), abnormalities of gestation, maternal and foetal origins. Infectious abortions are caused in almost cases by bacterial infections, followed by viruses, fungi and parasites. New abortive pathogens (as Leptospira, Neospora caninum, Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila abortus, and) have been confirmed in equines by comparison alre...
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