Topic:Disease Prevention

CANTERing towards more sustainable helminth control.
The Veterinary record    September 8, 2023   Volume 193, Issue 5 doi: 10.1002/vetr.3435
Colgate V.Victoria Colgate of Equine Infectious Disease Surveillance introduces CANTER, a voluntary pan-industry initiative that is aiming to inspire behaviour change among horse owners and promote a more sustainable approach to controlling parasites in their animals.
Longitudinal effects of oral administration of antimicrobial drugs on fecal microbiota of horses.
Journal of veterinary internal medicine    September 8, 2023   doi: 10.1111/jvim.16853
Gomez D, Toribio R, Caddey B, Costa M, Vijan S, Dembek K.Antimicrobial drug-associated diarrhea (AAD) is the most common adverse effect in horses receiving antimicrobials. Little information on how oral administration of antimicrobials alters intestinal microbiota in horses is available. Objective: Investigate changes of the fecal microbiota in response to oral administration of antimicrobials. Methods: Twenty healthy horses. Methods: Prospective, longitudinal study. Horses were randomly assigned to 4 groups comprising 4 horses each: group 1 (metronidazole); group 2 (erythromycin); group 3 (doxycycline); group 4 (sulfadiazine/trimethoprim, SMZ-TMP);...
Molecular and Serological Survey of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in Horses from the Republic of Korea.
Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.)    September 8, 2023   doi: 10.1089/vbz.2022.0101
Han SW, Cho YK, Rim JM, Kang JG, Choi KS, Chae JS. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging zoonotic tick-borne disease in East Asia caused by the SFTS virus (SFTSV). It is to investigate the presence of SFTSV RNA and antibodies in horses from a slaughterhouse and equestrian centers in the Republic of Korea (ROK). A prevalence study of SFTSV-specific RNA and antibodies was designed from 889 horses in the ROK. Serum samples were collected from horses at a slaughterhouse and equestrian centers from 2018 to 2020. To detect the presence of SFTSV, RNA was extracted from the serum samples, and a nested reverse transcriptio...
Detection of adeno-associated viral DNA in equine post-administration frozen blood and plasma samples after long-term storage.
Drug testing and analysis    September 6, 2023   doi: 10.1002/dta.3569
Maniego J, Pesko B, Habershon-Butcher J, Hincks P, Taylor P, Stewart G, Proudman C, Ryder E.Gene doping in horses is a threat to the fairness in sport and has serious implications for animal welfare. To investigate the effect of long-term storage on the detection of AAV in plasma and whole blood, samples from an administration study using an adeno-associated virus serotype 6 expressing green fluorescence protein (AAV6-GFP) were stored at -20°C for 8 months before analysis. The AAV vector was detected in stored plasma samples, following the same detection profile as the fresh plasma samples. The stored blood showed lower overall DNA detection but followed the same detection profile ...
Advances in dental management in the equine geriatric patient: strategies for improved welfare.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    September 6, 2023   1-7 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.06.0350
du Toit N.Geriatric horses have a high prevalence of dental disease, which is a culmination of age-related dental changes and dental disease throughout the life of the horse that may have long-term consequences. Wear abnormalities, diastemata with periodontal disease, pulpitis and endodontic disease, infundibular caries, and equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis become more prevalent with age. Recognition of age-related dental disease at an early stage can help to treat and possibly preserve teeth for longer. With a natural decrease in masticatory efficiency, it is even more importan...
Ferret Models for Henipavirus Infection.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)    August 23, 2023   Volume 2682 205-217 doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-3283-3_15
Rockx B, Mire CE.Henipaviruses are emerging zoonotic viruses that can cause outbreaks of severe respiratory and neurological disease in humans and animals such as horses. The mechanism by which these viruses can cause disease remain largely unknown and to date there are no therapeutics or vaccines approved for use in humans. Nipah virus is listed on the World Health Organization R & D Blueprint list of epidemic threats. In order to advance the availability of effective therapeutics and vaccines and medicines that can be used to save lives and avert large scale crises, animal models are required which recap...
Current and Future Advances in the Detection and Surveillance of Biosecurity-Relevant Equine Bacterial Diseases Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP).
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    August 18, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 16 2663 doi: 10.3390/ani13162663
Knox A, Zerna G, Beddoe T.Horses play an important role throughout the world, whether for work, culture, or leisure, providing an ever-growing significant contribution to the economy. The increase in importation and movement of horses, both nationally and internationally, has inevitably allowed for the global equine industry to grow. Subsequently, however, the potential for transmission of fatal equine bacterial diseases has also escalated, and devasting outbreaks continue to occur. To prevent such events, disease surveillance and diagnosis must be heightened throughout the industry. Current common, or "gold-standard" ...
Antibiotic usage in 14 equine practices over a 10-year period (2012-2021).
Equine veterinary journal    August 16, 2023   doi: 10.1111/evj.13988
Tallon RE, Whitt B, Bladon BM.Monitoring antibiotic usage is an important part of tackling antimicrobial resistance. The use of computerised records for monitoring has been previously described in the equine sector but there is currently no consensus on metrics used to report usage. Objective: To document antibiotic use in equine practices in the United Kingdom over a 10-year period using commercially available practice management software. Methods: Retrospective survey. Methods: A custom antibiotic usage report was created using Eclipse® practice management software. Participating practices were given instructions on how...
Continuous digital hypothermia for prevention and treatment of equine acute laminitis: A practical review.
Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997)    July 26, 2023   106016 doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2023.106016
Lavado RA, Lewis J, Montgomery JB.Laminitis is a severely debilitating and life-threatening condition that occurs as a consequence of different primary triggering factors. Continuous digital hypothermia (CDH) is recommended in horses at risk of, or diagnosed with, acute laminitis due to its several physiological and biochemical alterations that may be positive for the prevention and early treatment of the condition, representing a low risk of adverse effects. Modulation of the inflammatory response, profound vasoconstriction, and prevention of tissue damage are the most notable protective effects of cryotherapy on the lamellae...
Identification of vaccine candidates against rhodococcus equi by combining pangenome analysis with a reverse vaccinology approach.
Heliyon    July 25, 2023   Volume 9, Issue 8 e18623 doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e18623
Liu L, Yu W, Cai K, Ma S, Wang Y, Ma Y, Zhao H. () is a zoonotic opportunistic pathogen that can cause life-threatening infections. The rapid evolution of multidrug-resistant and the fact that there is no currently licensed effective vaccine against warrant the need for vaccine development. Reverse vaccinology (RV), which involves screening a pathogen's entire genome and proteome using various web-based prediction tools, is considered one of the most effective approaches for identifying vaccine candidates. Here, we performed a pangenome analysis to determine the core proteins of . We then used the RV approach to examine the subcellular l...
The Effect of Dietary Synbiotics in Actively Racing Standardbred Horses Receiving Trimethoprim/Sulfadiazine.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    July 18, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 14 doi: 10.3390/ani13142344
Lagounova M, MacNicol JL, Weese JS, Pearson W.Synbiotics are often provided to horses receiving antibiotics to protect against microbiome disturbances, despite a lack of evidence for efficacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a synbiotic product in horses receiving antibiotics. Sixteen actively racing Standardbred horses were randomly allocated (four-way crossover) to one of four groups: antibiotics (10 days; AB), synbiotics (28 days; PROBIOPlusTM; PBP), PBP + AB, or Control. The fecal microbiome was investigated using 16S rRNA sequencing, and fecal dry matter (DM; %), pH, and scores (FS; 0-9) were measured. Data we...
JMM Profile: West Nile virus.
Journal of medical microbiology    July 17, 2023   Volume 72, Issue 7 doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.001730
Sewgobind S, McCracken F, Schilling M.West Nile virus (WNV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family and is maintained in an enzootic cycle between avian hosts and mosquito vectors. Humans, horses and other mammals are susceptible to infection but are dead-end hosts due to a low viraemia. The disease can manifest itself in a variety of clinical signs and symptoms in people and horses from mild fever to severe encephalitis and morbidity. There are no vaccines licensed for human protection, but parts of Europe, North America, Africa and Australia have vaccines commercially available for hors...
Recent advances in the treatment and prevention of equine peripheral caries.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    June 19, 2023   1-8 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.01.0036
Jackson K, Kelty E.Equine peripheral caries is a common condition characterized by demineralization and degradation of the clinical crown of equine cheek teeth. The condition can cause significant pain and morbidity, particularly in severe cases. Recent studies indicate that the condition is driven by environmental conditions within the mouth, as only the clinical crown of the tooth is affected (the reserve crown below the gingival margin remains unaffected). It is hypothesized that peripheral caries is driven by changes in oral pH, with risk factors for the condition including the intake of high-sugar feeds (oa...
Shortened strongylid egg reappearance periods in horses following macrocyclic lactone administration – The impact on parasite dynamics.
Veterinary parasitology    June 19, 2023   Volume 320 109977 doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2023.109977
Nielsen MK, Leathwick DM, Sauermann CW.Over the past three decades, equine strongylid egg reappearance periods (ERPs) have shortened substantially for macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics. The ERPs of ivermectin and moxidectin were originally reported in the 8-10 and 12-16 week ranges, respectively, but several recent studies have found them to be around 4-5 weeks for both actives. This loss of several weeks of suppressed strongylid egg output could have substantial implications for parasite control. This study made use of a computer simulation model to evaluate the impact of shortened ERPs on the anthelmintic performance of ivermecti...
Complete genomic characterization of bovine papillomavirus type 1 and 2 strains infers ongoing cross-species transmission between cattle and horses.
Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997)    June 17, 2023   Volume 298-299 106011 doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2023.106011
Gysens L, Vanmechelen B, Maes P, Martens A, Haspeslagh M.Infection with bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types 1 and 2 results in the most common skin tumor of horses, termed equine sarcoid. The persistent and recurrent nature of this tumor stands in contrast to the regressive nature of BPV-1/- 2 induced cutaneous papillomas in cattle. The circulation of horse-specific BPV-1/- 2 variants within equine populations has been suggested as a possible explanation for the difference in clinical presentation of BPV-1/- 2 infection between horses and cattle. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we identified 98 complete BPV-1/- 2 genomes using a Nanopore ...
Comments on: ‘Complications following diagnostic and therapeutic sacroiliac joint region injections in horses: A study describing clinicians’ experiences’ by Annamaria Nagy and Sue Dyson.
Equine veterinary journal    June 14, 2023   Volume 55, Issue 5 923-924 doi: 10.1111/evj.13946
Gray P.No abstract available
Audit of animal-related injuries at UK veterinary schools between 2009 and 2018.
The Veterinary record    June 13, 2023   e3171 doi: 10.1002/vetr.3171
Tulloch JSP, Fleming KM, Pinchbeck G, Forster J, Lowe W, Westgarth C.Animal-related injuries pose a significant risk to the veterinary profession. This study aimed to describe the incidence, demographics, context and consequences of animal-related injuries at UK veterinary schools. Methods: A multicentre audit of accident records (2009-2018) across five UK veterinary schools was performed. Injury rates were stratified by school, demographics and species. The context and cause of the injury were described. Multivariable logistic models explored factors associated with medical treatment, hospital visits and time off work. Results: An annual rate of 2.60 (95% conf...
Rhodococcus Equi: Challenges to Treat Infections and to Mitigate Antimicrobial Resistance.
Journal of equine veterinary science    June 7, 2023   Volume 127 104845 doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2023.104845
Higgins C, Huber L.Rhodococcus equi, a gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen and a soil saprophyte, is one of the most common causes of pneumonia in young foals. It poses a threat to the economy in endemic horse-breeding farms and to animal welfare annually. Many farms use thoracic ultrasonographic screening and antimicrobial treatment of subclinically affected foals as a preventive measure against severe R. equi infections. The wide use antimicrobials to treat subclinically affected foals has contributed to the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR)-R. equi in both clinical isolates from sick foals a...
In vitro effects of monophosphoryl lipid A and Poly I:C combination on equine cells.
Journal of veterinary science    June 5, 2023   Volume 24, Issue 3 e37 doi: 10.4142/jvs.23007
Lee DH, Lee EB, Seo JP, Ko EJ.Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been used as adjuvants to modulate immune responses in both animals and humans. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of the TLR 4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and the TLR 3 agonist polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) on equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs), and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs). Methods: The PBMCs, MoDCs, and BM-MSCs collected from three mixed breed horses were treated with MPL, Poly I:C, and their combination...
The faecal microbiome of Exmoor ponies shows step-wise compositional changes with increasing levels of management by humans.
Equine veterinary journal    June 2, 2023   doi: 10.1111/evj.13961
Bull K, Davies G, Jenkins TP, Peachey L.Horses can suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) disease in domestic environments, often precipitated by human-led changes in management. Understanding the consequences of these changes on equine gut microbiota is key to the prevention of such disease episodes. Objective: Profile the faecal microbiota of adult female Exmoor ponies under three management conditions, representing increasing levels of management by humans, encompassing different diets; whilst controlling for age, breed and sex. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive. Methods: Faecal samples were collected from three populations of Exmo...
Detection of foaling using a tail-attached device with a thermistor and tri-axial accelerometer in pregnant mares.
PloS one    June 2, 2023   Volume 18, Issue 6 e0286807 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0286807
Aoki T, Shibata M, Violin G, Higaki S, Yoshioka K.It is desirable to attend to the mare at the time of foaling in order to assist fetal delivery and prevent complications. The early detection of the onset of labor is an important issue for the equine industry. The purpose of this study was to examine the applicability of a sensor for foaling detection using the data of surface temperature (ST), roll angle (rotation about the y-axis) and y-axis (long axis of the tail) acceleration which were collected from a multimodal device attached to the ventral tail base of the mare. The data were collected every 3 minutes in 17 pregnant mares. Roll angle...
Assessment of tetanus revaccination regimens in horses not vaccinated in the previous year.
The Journal of veterinary medical science    June 1, 2023   Volume 85, Issue 7 751-754 doi: 10.1292/jvms.23-0158
Kinoshita Y, Yamanaka T, Kodaira K, Niwa H, Uchida-Fujii E, Ueno T.A two-dose revaccination against tetanus is recommended for horses over 2 years old in Japan with no history of vaccination in the previous year. Here, the need for two-dose revaccination was evaluated in terms of antibody titers for each vaccine type, namely monovalent or multivalent. There was no difference in antibody titers between one- and two-dose regimens for up to 1 year, except at 8 weeks with the multivalent vaccine, and all horses had sufficient antibody titers for 1 year of tetanus prophylaxis. These results suggest that one-dose revaccination, regardless of the vaccine type, is as...
Epidemiology of Colic: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.
The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice    May 31, 2023   Volume 39, Issue 2 157-174 doi: 10.1016/j.cveq.2023.03.005
Gillen A, Catherine Archer D.Epidemiologic studies are essential for the generation of evidence-based, preventive health care strategies. This includes ways to minimize colic risk and assist informed decision making concerning diagnosis, treatment, and likely outcomes. It is important to consider that colic is not a simple "disease" but is a syndrome of abdominal pain that encompasses multiple different disease processes, and which is multifactorial in nature. This review focuses on prevention and diagnosis of colic, including specific forms of colic, communications with owners/carers concerning colic risk and management,...
Efficacy of high-level disinfection of endoscopes contaminated with Streptococcus equi subspecies equi with 2 different disinfectants.
Journal of veterinary internal medicine    May 26, 2023   Volume 37, Issue 4 1561-1567 doi: 10.1111/jvim.16740
Nadruz V, Beard LA, Delph-Miller KM, Larson RL, Bai J, Chengappa MM.Prevention of spread of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) after an outbreak is best accomplished by endoscopic lavage of the guttural pouch, with samples tested by culture and real time, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Disinfection of endoscopes must eliminate bacteria and DNA to avoid false diagnosis of carrier horses of S. equi. Objective: Compare failure rates of disinfection of endoscopes contaminated with S. equi using 2 disinfectants (accelerated hydrogen peroxide [AHP] or ortho-phthalaldehyde [OPA]). The null hypothesis was that there would be no difference bet...
Use of human behaviour change models to investigate horse owner intention to adopt emergency colic recommendations.
Equine veterinary journal    May 25, 2023   doi: 10.1111/evj.13955
Lightfoot KL, Frost E, Burford JH, England GCW, Freeman SL.Behavioural models are widely used within human medicine to understand beliefs and intention associated with major health interventions. Objective: To investigate horse-owner beliefs and practices associated with emergency colic planning. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Methods: An online survey incorporating the Trans-Theoretical Model of behaviour change and the Theory of Planned Behaviour was developed to assess owner intention to adopt three areas of emergency colic planning: (1) prevention/recognition, (2) involvement of others and (3) personal preparation. Participants were recruited usi...
Equine Colic: Can We Do Better?
The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice    May 22, 2023   Volume 39, Issue 2 xiii-xv doi: 10.1016/j.cveq.2023.05.001
Southwood LL.No abstract available
First report of Leishmania (Mundinia) martiniquensis in South American territory and confirmation of Leishbunyavirus infecting this parasite in a mare.
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz    May 15, 2023   Volume 118 e220220 doi: 10.1590/0074-02760220220
Mendes Junior AAV, Filgueira CPB, Miranda LFC, de Almeida AB, Cantanhu00eade LM, Fagundes A, Pereira SA, Menezes RC, Cupolillo E.Epidemiological data related to leishmaniases or Leishmania infection in horses are scarce. However, studies carried out in different regions in the world showed equids parasitised by Leishmania braziliensis, L. infantum and L. martiniquensis. Objective: Identify the Leishmania species causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in a mare, living in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil), and search the presence of Leishmania viruses in the isolated parasite. Methods: Isoenzymes and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting ITSrDNA region followed by sequencing were conducted for typing the isolated parasite. A se...
Communication Interventions and Assessment of Drivers for Hendra Virus Vaccination Uptake.
Vaccines    May 4, 2023   Volume 11, Issue 5 936 doi: 10.3390/vaccines11050936
Kropich-Grant JN, Wiley KE, Manyweathers J, Thompson KR, Brookes VJ.Hendra virus disease (HeVD) is an emerging zoonosis in Australia, resulting from the transmission of Hendra virus (HeV) to horses from bats. Vaccine uptake for horses is low despite the high case fatality rate of HeVD in both horses and people. We reviewed evidence-based communication interventions to promote and improve HeV vaccine uptake for horses by horse owners and conducted a preliminary evaluation of potential drivers for HeV vaccine uptake using the Behavioural and Social Drivers of Vaccination (BeSD) framework developed by the World Health Organization. Six records were eligible for ...
Factors Influencing Equine Affiliate Opinion on Reporting of Equine Strangles in the United States.
Journal of equine veterinary science    April 28, 2023   Volume 128 104534 doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2023.104534
Martin KH, Redding LE, Boyle AG.Although equine strangles is reportable in all states, synchronous reporting of this disease does not occur across the country. States have variable regulations on reporting (actionable, notifiable, and monitored) and no mandatory comprehensive databases exist for tracking prevalence. In this study, which is a companion to our recent publication on veterinarians' opinions on this topic, we solicited equine affiliates' (including horse owners, horse business owners/trainers, breeders, and barn managers) opinions on reporting of strangles and factors influencing their opinion. A total of 518 equ...
Safety and efficacy of a feed additive consisting of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum DSM 11520 for horses, dogs, cats and pet rabbits (Animal Probiotics Sweden AB).
EFSA journal. European Food Safety Authority    April 20, 2023   Volume 21, Issue 4 e07974 doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2023.7974
Bampidis V, Azimonti G, Bastos ML, Christensen H, Dusemund B, Durjava M, Kouba M, Lu00f3pez-Alonso M, Lu00f3pez Puente S, Marcon F, Mayo B....Following a request from the European Commission, EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on DSM 11520 when used as a technological additive (acidity regulator) in feed for horses, dogs, cats and pet rabbits. The additive is intended to be incorporated into oat-derived products (ca. 55% moisture content), carrot root-derived products (≥ 90% moisture) and coconut flesh-derived products (≥ 90% moisture) at a minimum inclusion level of 8.0 × 10 CFU/kg of the feed material under scope. The bacterial species is considered by EFSA to be suitable for the qualified presumption ...
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