Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.

Veterinary Medicine
[American Veterinary Medical Association,. Schaumburg, Ill. : American Veterinary Medical Association (1975)
Frequency: Semimonthly
Country: United States
Language: English
American Veterinary Medical Association.
Start Year:1915 -
ISSN:0003-1488 (Print)
1943-569X (Electronic)
0003-1488 (Linking)
NLM ID:7503067
Classification:W1 JO911J
Equine gamma herpesvirus presence and viral load are not associated with equine glandular gastric disease.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    July 1, 2024   Volume 262, Issue 7 887 doi: 10.2460/javma.262.7.887
Lu00f6hr JM.No abstract available
Using accelerometers to identify a high risk of catastrophic musculoskeletal injury in three racing Thoroughbreds.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    June 21, 2024   1-9 doi: 10.2460/javma.24.02.0114
Sweeney DM, Holmstru00f6m M, Donohue KD, Lambert DH, Bayly WM.To describe the process whereby the screening of racing Thoroughbreds with accelerometer-based inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors followed by clinical evaluation and advanced imaging identified potentially catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries in 3 horses. Methods: 3 Thoroughbred racehorses. Methods: All cases demonstrated an abnormal stride pattern either during racing (cases 1 and 2) or while breezing (case 3) and were identified as being at very high risk of catastrophic musculoskeletal injury by an algorithm derived from IMU sensor files from > 20,000 horses' race starts. Veterinary e...
Fasting horses perioperatively decreases manure production and increases time to manure output postoperatively: a controlled randomized trial.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    June 12, 2024   1-8 doi: 10.2460/javma.24.04.0235
Barton CK, Hector RC, Hendrickson DA, Kawcak CE, Nelson BB, Goodrich LR.To compare 3 perioperative feeding regimens and their effect on anesthetic complications, manure output, and colic proportion in healthy horses. Methods: 45 horses presenting for elective orthopedic procedures were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: not fasted (NF; continuous access to hay perioperatively), fasted muzzled (FM; 10-hour preoperative fast with slow refeeding postoperatively and muzzle placement), or fasted not muzzled (FNM; same as FM without muzzle placement). Anesthetic protocol was standardized. Outcomes compared between groups included anesthesia time, arterial oxygenation, ...
Ultrasound biomicroscopic imaging parameters associated with outcome in equine infectious ulcerative keratitis and stromal abscesses.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    June 6, 2024   1-8 doi: 10.2460/javma.24.02.0097
Collins EN, Barr EM, Westermeyer H, Gilger BC, Oh A.To determine the predictive value of corneal ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) findings for the outcome of equine corneal disease. Methods: 46 horses with a clinical diagnosis of either infectious ulcerative keratitis or stromal abscess. Methods: Corneal UBM (VevoMD; UHF70; VisualSonics) of horses with infectious corneal disease presenting to the North Carolina State University Equine Ophthalmology Service from 2019 to 2023 were evaluated. Size and depth of lesion, presence of Descemet membrane disruption (DMD), corneal thickness, and aqueous humor cell counts (AHCC) were assessed. Comparisons of...
Neck pain but not neurologic disease occurs more frequently in horses with transposition of the ventral lamina from C6 to C7.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    May 29, 2024   1-7 doi: 10.2460/javma.24.04.0230
Henderson CS, Story MR, Nout-Lomas YS.To determine reasons for horses to have neck radiographs performed, the incidence of transposition of the ventral lamina of C6 onto C7 (TC67), and the final diagnoses for all horses. Our hypotheses were to find a similar incidence of TC67, as has been previously reported, and an increased incidence of neck pain and dysfunction in horses with TC67. Methods: 135 horses. Methods: Retrospective observational study. Medical records of 135 horses with cervical vertebral column radiographs between 2020 and 2022 were assessed. Patient signalment, reasons for radiographs, radiographic findings, and dia...
Comparative efficacy of low-volume retrobulbar anesthesia using three commercial local anesthetics in adult horses.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    May 3, 2024   1-11 doi: 10.2460/javma.24.02.0121
Tooley ZC, Eaton JS, Grant-Counard SM, Ilkenhans SM, Hetzel SJ, Bartholomew KJ.To compare the efficacy of low-volume (5-mL) locoregional retrobulbar anesthesia ("retrobulbar block") by use of 3 commercial local anesthetic formulations. Methods: 8 healthy adult mares. Methods: A block-randomized, masked, controlled design was used. A single ultrasound-guided retrobulbar block was performed with 2% lidocaine, 2% mepivacaine, or 0.5% bupivacaine (n = 5 eyes/group). Contralateral eyes served as untreated controls. End points performed at baseline and time intervals up to 24 hours postblock included the following: assessment of neurophthalmic reflexes/responses, intraocular p...
Musculoskeletal examination of the forelimb of the horse.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    April 30, 2024   1 doi: 10.2460/javma.24.03.0206
J Lacy K, Jens O, Cherise H.The intention of this tutorial video is to illustrate the methods of examining the forelimb and neck of a horse in order to identify abnormalities that may be associated with lameness or disease. Methods: A 16-year-old quarter horse gelding was used for examination. Methods: The horse was examined for abnormalities by means of physical examination. Results: The examination of the forelimb and neck of the horse was successfully completed. Conclusions: This examination technique is required to identify abnormalities in the equine forelimb and can be utilized during a lameness examination.
Involvement of veterinary students in the placement of intravenous catheters in adult horses in a teaching hospital does not significantly increase the rate of catheter complications.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    April 30, 2024   1-7 doi: 10.2460/javma.24.02.0077
Hepworth-Warren KL, Erwin-Craig SJ, Love K.To determine whether student involvement in intravenous catheter (IVC) placement increases the risk for complications and to report the rate and types of complications associated with IVCs in adult horses in a university teaching hospital. Methods: 455 IVCs placed in 394 horses. Methods: Data relevant to IVC placement and removal were retrieved from an electronic medical record search including records of adult horses from January 1 to December 31, 2022. Data retrieved from records included the role of the individual who prepared the site and placed the IVC, site of IVC placement, and type of ...
IL-1ra gene therapy in equine osteoarthritis improves physiological, anatomical, and biological outcomes of joint degeneration.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    April 22, 2024   1-12 doi: 10.2460/javma.24.02.0078
Goodrich LR, McIlwraith CW, Grieger J, Kraus VB, Stabler T, Werpy N, Phillips J, Samulski RJ, Frisbie D.To evaluate the effects of a gene transfer approach to IL-1β inhibition in an equine osteochondral chip fragment model of joint injury using a self-complementary adeno-associated virus with interleukin receptor antagonist transgene cassette (scAAVIL-1ra), as posttraumatic osteoarthritis in horses, similar to people, is a significant clinical problem. Methods: 16 horses were utilized for the study. Methods: All horses had an osteochondral chip fragment induced arthroscopically in one middle carpal joint while the contralateral joint was sham operated. Eight horses received either scAAVIL-1ra o...
Plasma and synovial fluid extracellular vesicles display altered microRNA profiles in horses with naturally occurring post-traumatic osteoarthritis: an exploratory study.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    April 13, 2024   1-12 doi: 10.2460/javma.24.02.0102
Connard SS, Gaesser AM, Clarke EJ, Linardi RL, Even KM, Engiles JB, Koch DW, Peffers MJ, Ortved KF.The objective of this study was to characterize extracellular vesicles (EVs) in plasma and synovial fluid obtained from horses with and without naturally occurring post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Methods: EVs were isolated from plasma and synovial fluid from horses with (n = 6) and without (n = 6) PTOA. Methods: Plasma and synovial fluid EVs were characterized with respect to quantity, size, and surface markers. Small RNA sequencing was performed, and differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) underwent bioinformatic analysis to identify putative targets and to explore potential associa...
Lameness, muscle atrophy, and a discharging tract overlying the right shoulder region in a 3-year-old gelding.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    April 10, 2024   1-3 doi: 10.2460/javma.24.02.0085
Fletcher O, Brennan M, Pereira M, Bianco C, Dixon J.No abstract available
Splenic hematoma and hemoperitoneum in a Thoroughbred racehorse after racing.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    April 5, 2024   1-3 doi: 10.2460/javma.24.01.0011
Neville E, Pigott J.To describe the clinical presentation of a Thoroughbred filly with acute hemoperitoneum from a splenic source immediately after racing. Methods: A 3-year-old Thoroughbred filly used for racing and that had raced shortly before presentation to the hospital. Unassigned: On presentation, the filly was quiet, alert, and responsive with a heart rate of 76 beats/min, pale mucous membranes, and absent borborygmi. All other physical examination parameters were within normal limits. Abdominal ultrasound was performed and revealed echogenic free abdominal fluid and a splenic hematoma. Abdominocentesis y...
Equine mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicle productivity but not overall yield is improved via 3-D culture with chemically defined media.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    April 1, 2024   1-12 doi: 10.2460/javma.24.01.0001
Gaesser AM, Usimaki AIJ, Barot DA, Linardi RL, Molugu S, Musante L, Ortved KF.Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a biotherapeutic for osteoarthritis; however, manufacturing large quantities is not practical using traditional monolayer (2-D) culture. We aimed to examine the effects of 3-D and 2-D culture 2 types of media: Dulbecco modified Eagle medium and a commercially available medium (CM) on EV yield. Methods: Banked bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) from 6 healthy, young horses were used. Methods: 4 microcarriers (collagen-coated polystyrene, uncoated polystyrene, collagen-coated dextran, and uncoated dextran) were tested in st...
Stem cells and platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of naturally occurring equine tendon and ligament injuries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    March 16, 2024   1-11 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.12.0723
M'Cloud WRC, Guzmu00e1n KE, Panek CL, Colbath AC.Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mesenchymal stromal or stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated as treatments for equine tendon and ligament injuries, but little consensus exists on the efficacy of these treatments. The study sought to evaluate the efficacy of PRP and MSC treatments by systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: A systematic review was performed using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines. Inclusion criteria required an original, peer-reviewed study where horses were administered MSCs or PRP (or both), and a comparator grou...
Trimethoprim-sulfonamide: a valid antimicrobial treatment in foals?
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    March 13, 2024   1-9 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.09.0536
Gustafsson K, Sykes BW, Verwilghen D, Palmers K, Sullivan S, van Galen G.Trimethoprim-sulfonamide (TMPS) combinations are widely used to treat a range of infectious diseases in horses, but some equine practitioners are reluctant to use them for treatment of both neonatal and older foals. Considering the emergence of increased antimicrobial resistance, the use of protected antimicrobials commonly prescribed to foals should be avoided and alternative first-line therapy considered, where appropriate. This review examines the characteristics and pharmacokinetics of TMPS and its suitability for treatment of foals. Data regarding dosage and route of administration are re...
Review of cellular therapies provides new insights into the potential treatment of diverse neurologic diseases in horses and dogs.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    March 8, 2024   1-10 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.12.0709
Colbath AC, Goodrich L, Frye C, Dow S.Neurological diseases and injuries in veterinary patients (horses, dogs, and cats) are complex, and effective treatment options are limited. Neuronal loss, damage to nerve conduction pathways, and inflammation and scarring associated with spinal cord injury pose major challenges in managing many neurological diseases. Furthermore, most of these neuropathologies lack definitive pharmacological treatments, driving interest and research into novel interventions. Our objective is to provide a narrative review of the current literature surrounding cellular therapies including neuronal and glial ste...
Noncontact infrared thermometer measurements offer a reasonable alternative to rectal temperature measurement in afebrile horses.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    March 8, 2024   1-7 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.12.0714
Zobrist CN, Bishop RC, McCoy AM.To assess the repeatability of infrared thermometer temperature readings and evaluate the correlation between digital rectal temperature and infrared thermometer temperatures taken at different locations in healthy afebrile horses. Methods: 101 afebrile horses ≥ 1 year old. Methods: Digital rectal temperatures and infrared temperatures from the eye, gingiva, neck, axilla, and perineum were obtained in a climate-controlled environment and at 2 outdoor ambient temperatures (study period, November 1, 2021, to April 30, 2023). Results: Infrared temperature measurements were well tolerated by hor...
Histologic and cytologic changes in normal equine joints after injection with 2.5% injectable polyacrylamide hydrogel reveal low-level macrophage-driven foreign body response.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    February 21, 2024   1-9 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.10.0553
Lowe J, Clifford L, Julian A, Koene M.The data presented in this paper are derived from an in vivo study performed to characterize the nature of the synovial integration process of a 2.5% synthetic cross-linked injectable polyacrylamide hydrogel (2.5 iPAAG) injected IA in horses. Methods: 10 healthy horses not suffering from OA or signs of joint disease were administered 50 or 100 mg 2.5 iPAAG in a total of 13 metacarpophalangeal or middle carpal joints. Methods: Injected joints were examined at 0, 14, 42, and/or 90 days postinjection. Parameters investigated included clinical examination, synoviocentesis, gross pathology, histolo...
Treatment of lidocaine-refractory ventricular tachycardia using procainamide in an anesthetized horse.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    February 9, 2024   1-3 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.09.0535
Fernandez-Barrientos MA, Flynn H, Ratliff B, Kilcoyne I.To highlight the use of procainamide as a potential alternative treatment modality in cases of ventricular tachycardia that are refractory to lidocaine and magnesium sulfate. Methods: 1 adult horse weighing 380 kg. Unassigned: A 25-year-old Arabian gelding presented with severe colic signs. Due to persistent pain, it was elected to carry out an exploratory laparotomy. During the procedure a diagnosis of severe, unstable ventricular tachycardia was made based on the ECG findings, with an initial heart rate of 195 beats per minute and severe hypotension. Results: Initial treatment consisted of d...
Ponies, miniatures, and younger equids are at higher risk of fecalith obstruction compared to a general colic population.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    February 7, 2024   1-9 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.09.0520
Miklavcic M, Dechant JE, Kilcoyne I.To determine breed, age, and sex predispositions for fecalith obstruction and to evaluate short-term survival and prognostic factors following surgical treatment of fecalith intestinal obstruction in equids. Methods: 151 equids. Methods: Medical records of equids undergoing surgery for fecalith obstruction from 2000 to 2020 were reviewed. Signalment, history, presenting clinicopathological data, surgical findings, complications, and short-term survival were recorded and compared between survivors and nonsurvivors. Signalment of the fecalith population was compared to a contemporaneous colic po...
Targeted transcriptomic analysis of synovial tissues from horses with septic arthritis treated with immune-activated mesenchymal stromal cells reveals induction of T-cell response pathways.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    February 3, 2024   1-10 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.10.0561
Pezzanite LM, Chow L, Engiles JB, Kurihara J, Plaisance C, Goodrich LR, Dow S.To investigate mechanistically the reported beneficial effects of immune-activated mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy to treat equine septic arthritis, leveraging Nanostring technology. Methods: 8 Quarter Horses with induced tibiotarsal Staphylococcus aureus septic arthritis treated IA with either Toll-like receptor-3 agonist polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid-activated MSCs + vancomycin antimicrobials (TLR-MSC-VAN; n = 4) or antimicrobials (VAN; 4). Methods: Synovial tissues were collected and fixed in neutral-buffered 10% formalin, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded synovial and osteochon...
α-Casozepine supplementation shows no effect on foals’ growth and cortisol levels before and after weaning.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    January 3, 2024   1-5 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.09.0545
Wood MK, Mason RM, Burk SV, Birmingham SSW.The goal of this study was to determine whether oral administration of α-casozepine (Zylkene) supplementation decreases the risk of disease in foals, as measured through salivary cortisol levels, temperature, clinical signs of disease, and body weight before and after weaning. Methods: 20 Thoroughbred foals were observed over 10 weeks, beginning 14 days prior to the time of weaning. Methods: Experimental foals were randomly selected and given α-casozepine daily for 10 weeks, while the controls received a placebo with the same frequency as the experimental group. The average daily height and ...
The prognosis for return to athletic function for Thoroughbred racehorses in Hong Kong with injuries to the palmaroproximal aspect of the metacarpus diagnosed using low-field magnetic resonance imaging.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    December 22, 2023   1-8 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.08.0442
Ratcliffe TOC, Robinson P, Rosanowski SM.To evaluate and compare the prognosis for Thoroughbred racehorses to return to galloping and racing with injuries to the palmaroproximal metacarpus diagnosed with MRI. Methods: 29 flat racing Thoroughbreds at the Hong Kong Jockey Club that underwent MRI between 2014 and 2022. Methods: Clinical, radiographic, ultrasonographic, and MRI reports were collected from veterinary clinical records, and these were combined with training and racing data. Horses were categorized on the basis of MRI diagnosis: (1) proximal suspensory ligament (PSL) involvement only, (2) PSL and concurrent proximal third me...
Efficacy of treatment of equine anhidrosis with acupuncture and Chinese herbs is low but higher in treated horses compared with placebo.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    December 6, 2023   1-6 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.08.0474
Mallicote MF, Medina CI, Xie H, Zilberschtein J, Atria S, Manzie M, Hernandez JA, MacKay RJ.To assess the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture in combination with Chinese herbs for treatment of horses affected with anhidrosis. Methods: 44 horses affected with anhidrosis for up to 3 years' duration were enrolled. Inclusion required both compatible clinical signs and results of a quantitative intradermal terbutaline sweat test. Methods: Study horses were randomly allocated into 2 groups. Group 1 (n = 19) was treated with daily Chinese herbs and 4 weekly acupuncture sessions. Group 2 (n = 25) was given daily hay powder as a placebo and 4 weekly sham acupuncture sessions. Horses were test...
Equine poor performance: the logical, progressive, diagnostic approach to determining the role of the temporomandibular joint.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    November 24, 2023   1-8 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.09.0513
Carmalt JL.Poor performance is an ambiguous term used frequently by people in the horse industry. It means different things to different people, depending on the breed, discipline, or problem being discussed. There are myriad reasons that a horse may fail to achieve the expectations put upon it or, having achieved those goals, begin to falter. Equine temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disease is beginning to be reported as 1 such cause of poor performance. Despite this, in certain disciplines, it has become the trendy diagnosis, and a logical approach to the diagnostic workup is often lacking. Many of the cli...
Subchondral bone sequestrum formation in the proximal intra-articular and osteochondral region of the third metatarsal bone of an Appaloosa mare treated for septic arthritis.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    November 10, 2023   1-4 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.08.0476
Barton CK, Samol MA, Nelson BB, Piquini G, Smanik LE, Goodrich LR.To raise awareness of the potential for intra-articular subchondral bone sequestrum formation secondary to a traumatic or septic process to enable more rapid identification of this uncommon but possible outcome in future cases. Methods: A client-owned 12-year-old Appaloosa mare. Unassigned: The mare had a wound to the lateral aspect of the fourth metatarsal bone (MT4) that communicated with the distal tarsal joints. Radiographs revealed a displaced, comminuted fracture of MT4. Results: The horse underwent aggressive debridement of the wound and MT4 as well as, on 2 occasions, needle joint lava...
Abnormal head and neck carriage following trauma in a 5-month-old Thoroughbred colt.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    November 9, 2023   1-4 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.08.0490
Guidoni K, Schiavo S, Scilimati N, Bertoletti A, Beccati F.No abstract available
Standing gustatory papillae biopsy procedure for antemortem diagnosis of equine grass sickness.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    October 25, 2023   1-8 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.07.0403
Quu00e9ru00e9 E, Volmer C, Mespoulhu00e8s-Riviu00e8re C.Diagnosing equine grass sickness (EGS) requires histopathological evidence of chromatolysis and/or neuronal loss in peripheral autonomic ganglia. Previous investigators performed postmortem biopsies of gustatory papillae located on the tongue and found chromatolytic subgemmal neurons in all 13 EGS horses. The present study aimed to design a standardized lingual biopsy sampling method through a transbuccal approach in healthy standing horses and assess the quality of the obtained samples, to allow antemortem diagnosis of EGS in clinical cases. Methods: 6 healthy horses. Methods: A transbuccal a...
Pseudohyperkalemia in horses with rhabdomyolysis reported by an enzymatic chemistry analyzer.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    October 13, 2023   Volume 262, Issue 1 1-5 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.06.0348
Valberg SJ, Clancey NP, Salinger A, Waldridge B, Tan JY, Barton MH.To investigate pseudohyperkalemia occurring in horses experiencing rhabdomyolysis when serum chemistry profiles are run on an VetScan VS2 analyzer (Abaxis). Methods: 18 horses with rhabdomyolysis (creatine kinase [CK] > 1,000 U/L). Methods: In 3 horses with serum CK activities > 5,800 U/L and persistent serum potassium concentrations of > 8.5 mmol/L (VetScan VS2), potassium concentrations were reevaluated with either i-STAT Alinity Base Station (Abbott), Catalyst (Idexx), or Cobas c501 (Roche) ion-specific analyzers. Paired serum samples from 15 additional horses (median serum CK acti...
Efficient primary surgical treatment of equine infectious sinusitis reduces postoperative aftercare and increases outcome results: a retrospective study of 130 cases.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    October 9, 2023   Volume 261, Issue S2 S87-S95 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.05.0298
Leps A, Korsos S, Clarysse M, Vlaminck L.To document the long-term outcome of surgically treated primary and dental-related sinusitis in horses and to describe a simple protocol for postoperative management. Methods: All surgically treated sinusitis cases referred between January 2016 and June 2022 were reviewed. Cases diagnosed with primary and dental-related sinusitis and with a follow-up of at least 6 months after hospital discharge were included. Cases with other sinus pathology were excluded. Results: 130 cases met the inclusion criteria. 104 out of 130 were treated with sinoscopy and 26/130 with sinusotomy. 86 out of 130 cases ...
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