Topic:Necropsy

Equine neuroaxonal dystrophy/degenerative myeloencephalopathy in Gypsy Vanner horses.
Journal of veterinary internal medicine    April 13, 2024   doi: 10.1111/jvim.17062
Powers A, Peek SF, Reed S, Donnelly CG, Tinkler S, Gasper D, Woolard KD, Finno CJ.Equine neuroaxonal dystrophy/degenerative myeloencephalopathy (eNAD/EDM) is a neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects young, genetically predisposed horses that are deficient in vitamin E. Equine NAD/EDM has not previously been documented in Gypsy Vanner horses (GVs). Objective: To evaluate: (1) the clinical phenotype, blood vitamin E concentrations before and after supplementation and pedigree in a cohort of GV horses with a high prevalence of neurologic disease suspicious for eNAD/EDM and (2) to confirm eNAD/EDM in GVs through postmortem evaluation. Methods: Twenty-six GVs from 1 fa...
Owner perceptions and Experiences with Equine Necropsy.
Journal of equine veterinary science    April 10, 2024   105065 doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2024.105065
Inglis ZE, Firshman AM, Lochner HL, Martinson KL.In recent years, the number of horses submitted for necropsy has been in decline. This study aimed to identify the perceptions and barriers of equine necropsy through an online survey of horse owners. The data were analyzed by multivariate models for associations and factors that influenced decision making regarding necropsy. The survey yielded 1,366 usable responses. Respondents had higher familiarity with the term "autopsy" compared to "necropsy" (P<0.001) and showed a greater level of comfort using the terms "body" and "mortality" compared to "carcass" (P<0.001). Most respondents (82%) had ...
Postmortem magnetic resonance imaging findings of tricuspid atresia with ventricular and atrial septal defects and subvalvular pulmonic stenosis in a Japanese native Noma horse.
Journal of equine science    January 18, 2024   Volume 34, Issue 4 121-125 doi: 10.1294/jes.34.121
Kutara K, Kadekaru S, Hisaeda K, Sugimoto K, Ono T, Inoue Y, Nakamura S, Yoshitake R, Ohzawa E, Goto A, Iwata E, Shibano K, Une Y, Kitagawa H.The necropsy of a 2-day-old Noma horse that died of weakness showed an enlarged cardiac base and a narrow cardiac apex, suggesting cardiac malformation. The excised heart underwent imaging to investigate its luminal structure. On three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging, the right atrium and right ventricle were discontinuous. The right atrium communicated with the left atrium and the left ventricle communicated with the right ventricle. The lumen narrowed near the pulmonary artery valve. Since the same findings were observed on gross examination, the foal was diagnosed with tricuspid atre...
Osteoarthritis of the coxofemoral joint in 24 horses: Evaluation of radiography, ultrasonography, intra-articular anaesthesia, treatment and outcome.
Equine veterinary journal    January 7, 2024   doi: 10.1111/evj.14053
Sauer FJ, Hellige M, Beineke A, Geburek F.Few case reports describe equine coxofemoral joint osteoarthritis (CFJOA). Objective: To evaluate diagnostic findings and outcome of horses with CFJOA and to provide a score facilitating radiographic assessment. Methods: Retrospective case series. Methods: History, clinical signs, ultrasonographic, radiographic and intra-articular anaesthesia findings, treatments, outcome, and necropsy results of horses with CFJOA presented between 2002 and 2023 were collated. Radiographic findings were categorised to develop a radiographic score which was applied by two masked examiners. Intra- and inter-obse...
Lumbar vertebral bone density is decreased in horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction.
Equine veterinary journal    December 27, 2023   doi: 10.1111/evj.14039
Colbath AC, Fortin JS, Burglass CM, Panek C, Vergara-Hernandez FB, Johnson TN, Robison CA, Logan AA, Nelson NA, Nielsen BD, Schott HC.Pathological fractures have been reported in equids with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) but their prevalence and pathogenesis is unknown. Objective: To compare: (1) bone mineral density (BMD) in weight bearing and nonweight bearing bones in PPID equids and aged and young PPID controls; and (2) biomechanical properties of the fourth lumbar vertebral body in PPID equids and aged PPID equids. Methods: Case-control study: five PPID equids and six aged and four young PPID control horses. Methods: PPID status was based on clinical signs and necropsy examination of the pituitary gland (...
Clinical and histopathological features in horses with neuroaxonal degeneration: 100 cases (2017-2021).
Journal of veterinary internal medicine    December 14, 2023   doi: 10.1111/jvim.16969
Brown KA, Bender SJ, Johnson AL.Adult horses with proprioceptive ataxia and behavior changes that have histologic lesions consistent with neurodegenerative disease have been increasingly recognized. Objective: Describe the history, clinical findings and histopathologic features of horses presented to a referral institution with neuroaxonal degeneration. Methods: One hundred horses with a necropsy diagnosis of neuroaxonal degeneration compatible with neuroaxonal dystrophy/degenerative myeloencephalopathy (eNAD/EDM). Methods: Retrospective study of horses presented to the University of Pennsylvania, New Bolton Center, between ...
Preliminary evaluation of safety and migration of immune activated mesenchymal stromal cells administered by subconjunctival injection for equine recurrent uveitis.
Frontiers in veterinary science    December 14, 2023   Volume 10 1293199 doi: 10.3389/fvets.2023.1293199
Cassano JM, Leonard BC, Martins BC, Vapniarsky N, Morgan JT, Dow SW, Wotman KL, Pezzanite LM.Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU), an immune mediated disease characterized by repeated episodes of intra-ocular inflammation, affects 25% of horses in the USA and is the most common cause of glaucoma, cataracts, and blindness. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have immunomodulatory properties, which are upregulated by preconditioning with toll-like receptor agonists. The objective was to evaluate safety and migration of TLR-3 agonist polyinosinic, polycytidylic acid (pIC)-activated MSCs injected subconjunctivally in healthy horses prior to clinical application in horses with ERU. We hypothesized ...
Diagnostic Pathology of Equine Toxicoses.
The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice    November 14, 2023   S0749-0739(23)00071-8 doi: 10.1016/j.cveq.2023.10.005
Cassone L.This article is intended to highlight toxicosis-associated pathology in horses that might be observed by a clinician in the living animal and at gross necropsy. When the clinician is aware of these pathologic changes (particularly when coupled with a suggestive environmental or herd history), then collaboration with a diagnostic laboratory can begin to help identify specific toxicants. Proper sampling and communication with the diagnostic laboratory will vastly improve the likelihood of a specific diagnosis; postmortem sampling and specimen submission are reviewed in the last section of this a...
Potential risk factors for fetal loss due to umbilical cord torsion in the mare.
Theriogenology    October 23, 2023   Volume 214 182-186 doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2023.10.026
Christoffersen M, Nielsen SB, Madvig CB, Agerholm JS.Equine pregnancy failure can occur throughout gestation with etiologies varying by region. In Europe, umbilical cord torsion (UCT) has been reported to account for up to 52% of abortions and stillbirths. Little is known about what causes excessive twisting of the umbilical cord (UC), and up till now, only the length of the UC has been identified as a risk factor for UCT. The aim of the present study was to determine the association of potential maternal and fetal risk factors with UCT and umbilical cord length (UCL). A retrospective cohort study was performed on aborted or prematurely delivere...
A retrospective study of equine perinatal loss in Canada (2007 to 2020).
The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne    October 2, 2023   Volume 64, Issue 10 933-940 doi: 10.1002/vetr.298
Ricard RM, St-Jean G, Atwal HK, Wobeser BK.This study aims to identify the most common causes of equine perinatal loss up to 7 d of age in Canada. Equine. Necropsy reports from 360 equine perinatal loss cases were acquired from provincial veterinary diagnostic labs across Canada. Each case was classified into a basic cause (noninfectious, infectious, or unidentified) of perinatal loss, then further classified into primary and secondary categories for analysis. Of the basic causes of perinatal loss, noninfectious causes were the most common. Bacterial causes, such as septicemia, were the most common primary diagnosis overall. was the m...
Evaluation of real-time polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses using cerebrospinal fluid.
Journal of veterinary internal medicine    August 7, 2023   Volume 37, Issue 5 1893-1898 doi: 10.1111/jvim.16826
Enriquez CK, Morrow JK, Graves A, Johnson A.Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) caused by Sarcocystis neurona remains an antemortem diagnostic challenge in some horses. Recent work suggested the use of real-time PCR (rtPCR) on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a promising diagnostic tool. Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of S. neurona rtPCR on CSF for EPM diagnosis using horses with EPM and S. neurona-seropositive horses with other neurologic conditions. Methods: Ninety-nine horses with neurologic disease that underwent complete neurologic examination, CSF collection, and, if euthanized, necropsy including the cent...
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with heterotopic ossification, lymphovascular invasion, and nodal and pulmonary metastases in a 23-year-old Morgan gelding.
The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne    July 3, 2023   Volume 64, Issue 7 627-632 
Townsend KS, Johnson PJ, Kuroki K.Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck occurs in the skin or squamous epithelial lining tissues of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and sinonasal tract. Although it is a common tumor in horses, distant metastatic spread to the lung is rare. This report describes a case of metastatic pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma in a 23-year-old Morgan gelding. The clinical signs displayed by this gelding in some ways mimicked the typical presentation of equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis or thoracic lymphoma. The postmortem diagnosis in this case was head and neck squamous cell carcinom...
Preputial lymphangioma in a stallion: First report.
Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene    June 13, 2023   Volume 58, Issue 8 1161-1163 doi: 10.1111/rda.14402
Gomes JE, Canadas-Sousa A, Guimaru00e3es T, Cunha R, Dias-Pereira P.This short communication describes a case of a 30-year-old stallion with a mass on the base of the penis causing paraphimosis. The patient was submitted to anti-inflammatory and diuretic therapy with no signs of improvement, so 16 days after the lesion was detected, the animal was euthanized. Necropsy was performed, and histopathological assessment of the lesion was conducted. The mass was composed primarily of channels and cavernous structures, lined by elongated cells of vascular origin, located in the preputium. The lesion was diagnosed as a preputial lymphangioma. To the authors' best kn...
Pericardiotomy by Transdiaphragmatic Thoracoscopy Singleport in Horses.
Journal of equine veterinary science    June 8, 2023   Volume 127 104846 doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2023.104846
Lorga AD, Gomes ARC, Strugava L, Moreno JCD, Dornbusch PT.Thoracoscopy pericardiotomy consists of endoscopic access to the thoracic cavity to perform the opening of the pericardial sac, described in the equine species only through the intercostal access, and there are no studies addressing the singleport transdiaphragmatic access, so the objective was to develop the pericardiotomy technique by transdiaphragmatic thoracoscopy using a single port. The technique was performed using six cadavers of adult horses, positioned in dorsal decubitus, making it possible to initiate access with an incision in the region proximal to the xiphoid process, for the in...
Prevalence of Latent Equid Herpesvirus Type 1 in Submandibular Lymph Nodes of Horses in Virginia.
Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland)    June 7, 2023   Volume 12, Issue 6 813 doi: 10.3390/pathogens12060813
Saklou N, Pleasant S, Lahmers K, Funk R.Equine Herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) typically causes mild respiratory disease, but it can also cause late-term abortion, neonatal foal death and neurologic disease. Once a horse is infected, the virus concentrates to local lymphoid tissue, where it becomes latent. The virus can be reactivated during times of stress, which can lead to the initiation of devastating outbreaks. Understanding the carriage rate of latent EHV-1 in different geographic regions is essential for managing the disease. The objective of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of latent EHV-1 and compare the frequenc...
Intestinal hemangiomas in 8 horses.
Veterinary pathology    June 2, 2023   3009858231176560 doi: 10.1177/03009858231176560
Metcalfe A, Craig LE.This retrospective study describes 8 cases of intestinal hemangioma diagnosed in horses during postmortem examination or surgical biopsy at the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine. In all cases, the intestine was the sole organ affected, and lesions were focal (3/8) or multifocal (5/8). Nodules were most commonly within the small intestine (7/8), particularly the jejunum (5/7). One case was in the left dorsal colon, which is the first report of hemangioma in the large colon of a horse. Lesions were discrete, raised, smooth, black to red, and ranged from 2 to 15 mm in diamete...
Ingesta-associated choledocholithiasis in horses: 2 cases and literature review. Linn-Peirano SC, Hepworth-Warren K, Kinsella H, Diaz-Campos D, Brenseke BM, Cianciolo RE, Schroeder E, Schreeg ME.Equine ingesta-associated choledocholithiasis is a rare cause of morbidity and mortality. We describe here the clinical, gross, histologic, and microbiologic features of this condition in 2 horses and compare the features to 2 previous cases. Case 1 was a 4-y-old Thoroughbred mare with colic. Case 2 was an 18-y-old American Paint Horse mare with colic, chronic weight loss, and inappropriate mentation. Both had elevated biochemical markers of hepatocellular injury and cholestasis and were euthanized given a poor prognosis. Case 1 had a well-formed 5-cm choledocholith surrounding a piece of hay,...
Postmortem examination of equids >1-year-old with enterotyphlocolitis in Ontario: a retrospective descriptive study. Zakia LS, Arroyo LG, Gomez DE, Boerlin P, Surette MG, Lillie BN.Equine enterotyphlocolitis is an inflammatory process of the intestinal tract of horses that is associated with multiple etiologic agents and risk factors. Most clinical cases do not have an etiologic diagnosis. We describe here the pathogens detected and the histologic lesions found in horses with enterotyphlocolitis in Ontario that were submitted for postmortem examination, 2007-2019. We reviewed the medical records of 208 horses that fulfilled inclusion criteria. Cultures were positive in 67 of 208 (32%) equids for , in 16 of 208 (8%) for , and in 14 of 208 (7%) for spp.; 6 of 208 (3%) wer...
Proliferative tenosynovitis in Brazilian Mangalarga Marchador horses.
Journal of comparative pathology    April 3, 2023   Volume 202 8-15 doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2023.03.002
Daoualibi Y, Pereira AHB, Lima LR, Pool RR, Ubiali DG.Proliferative tenosynovitis (PT) is an inflammatory and proliferative disorder of the synovial membrane of the tendon sheath that is rare in animals. The histological alterations are characterized by multinodular neovascularization, with infiltration of histiocytic and multinucleated giant cells and haemosiderin deposition. We reviewed necropsy and biopsy records of horses submitted to the Setor de Anatomia Patológica of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro from January 2017 to December 2020 to select cases of PT. We identified PT in three adult Brazilian Mangalarga Marchador hors...
Cerebrospinal fluid and serum proteomic profiles accurately distinguish neuroaxonal dystrophy from cervical vertebral compressive myelopathy in horses.
Journal of veterinary internal medicine    March 16, 2023   Volume 37, Issue 2 689-696 doi: 10.1111/jvim.16660
Donnelly CG, Johnson AL, Reed S, Finno CJ.Cervical vertebral compressive myelopathy (CVCM) and equine neuroaxonal dystrophy/degenerative myeloencephalopathy (eNAD/EDM) are leading causes of spinal ataxia in horses. The conditions can be difficult to differentiate, and there is currently no diagnostic modality that offers a definitive antemortem diagnosis. Objective: Evaluate novel proteomic techniques and machine learning algorithms to predict biomarkers that can aid in the antemortem diagnosis of noninfectious spinal ataxia in horses. Methods: Banked serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from necropsy-confirmed adult eNAD/EDM (...
Tulathromycin and Diclazuril Lack Efficacy against Theileria haneyi, but Tulathromycin Is Not Associated with Adverse Clinical Effects in Six Treated Adult Horses.
Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland)    March 14, 2023   Volume 12, Issue 3 453 doi: 10.3390/pathogens12030453
Onzere CK, Hulbert M, Sears KP, Williams LBA, Fry LM.Equine theileriosis, caused by and , leads to anemia, exercise intolerance, and occasionally, death. Theileriosis-free countries prohibit the importation of infected horses, resulting in significant costs for the equine industry. Imidocarb dipropionate is the only treatment for in the United States, but lacks efficacy against . The goal of this study was to assess the in vivo efficacy of tulathromycin and diclazuril against . Fourteen -infected horses were utilized. Six were treated with eight weekly 2.5 mg/kg doses of tulathromycin. Three were treated daily for eight weeks with 2.5 mg/kg di...
Onchocerca sp. in an imported Zangersheide gelding causing suspensory ligament desmitis.
Journal of veterinary internal medicine    February 23, 2023   Volume 37, Issue 2 735-739 doi: 10.1111/jvim.16653
Brown KA, Johnson AL, Bender SJ, Nolan TJ, Pfisterer B, Slack J, Willis E, Rule EK.A 5-year-old imported Zangersheide gelding was evaluated for SC swellings over both forelimbs and lameness localized to the distal metacarpus. Ultrasound examination of the SC masses was compatible with verminous granulomas. Linear hyperechoic foci were present within the suspensory ligament branches of both forelimbs, suggestive of ligamentous parasitic infiltrates. A diagnosis of onchocerciasis was confirmed on biopsy of a SC mass. The gelding was treated with ivermectin and a tapering course of PO dexamethasone but was eventually euthanized. Necropsy confirmed the presence of SC eosinophili...
Case report: Halicephalobus gingivalis in a Tennessee pony.
Veterinary parasitology, regional studies and reports    February 13, 2023   Volume 39 100843 doi: 10.1016/j.vprsr.2023.100843
Baker E, Geick A, Hines M, Gerhold R, Cordero-Aponte C.A 17-year-old female grade pony presented to University of Tennessee Veterinary Medical Center in May of 2021 for evaluation of multifocal, firm, sessile, circular lesions of various diameters on the ventrum and flank. The lesions had been present for two weeks at presentation. An excisional biopsy found numerous adult and larval rhabditid nematodes most consistent with Halicephalobus gingivalis. PCR targeting a portion of the large ribosomal subunit confirmed this diagnosis. The patient was treated with a high dose course of ivermectin followed by fenbendazole. The patient began showing neuro...
Multisystemic eosinophilic epitheliotropic disease in three donkeys.
Journal of comparative pathology    February 13, 2023   Volume 201 105-108 doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2023.01.005
Paraschou G, Vogel PE, Lee AM, Trawford RF, Priestnall SL.Multisystemic eosinophilic epitheliotropic disease (MEED) is a rare condition of equids characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of multiple organs. Clinical signs are variable depending on the affected organs. The most common clinical signs include chronic weight loss, diarrhoea and exfoliative dermatitis. Respiratory distress and raised liver enzymes are less frequently seen. The cause is unknown and the pathogenesis is poorly understood. There are less than 50 reported cases of horses with MEED. We now document the lesions in three donkeys with fluctuating or chronic loss of weight, letha...
Patterns of variation in equine strongyle community structure across age groups and gut compartments.
Parasites & vectors    February 11, 2023   Volume 16, Issue 1 64 doi: 10.1186/s13071-022-05645-5
Boisseau M, Mach N, Basiaga M, Kuzmina T, Laugier C, Sallu00e9 G.Equine strongyles encompass more than 64 species of nematode worms that are responsible for growth retardation and the death of animals. The factors underpinning variation in the structure of the equine strongyle community remain unknown. Methods: Using horse-based strongyle community data collected after horse deworming (48 horses in Poland, 197 horses in Ukraine), we regressed species richness and the Gini-Simpson index upon the horse's age, faecal egg count, sex and operation of origin. Using the Ukrainian observations, we applied a hierarchical diversity partitioning framework to estimate ...
Biliary parascarosis in a foal.
Veterinary medicine and science    February 1, 2023   Volume 9, Issue 3 1149-1153 doi: 10.1002/vms3.1087
Sazmand A, Yavari M, Babaei M, Nourian A, Otranto D.Migration of Ascaris lumbricoides through the papilla of Vater in humans, and entry into the biliary tree, is well-recognised. Ascaris suum and Toxocara vitulorum have been recovered from the liver of swine and buffalo. We necropsied a Persian Kurdish filly at age 6 months, weighing ∼100 kg. Death evidently was caused by oleander (Nerium oleander) intoxication. An 8-cm adult male Parascaris was found at the lobar-left hepatic bile duct junction. We suggest that the nematode entered anteriorly into the hepatic tree, via the duodenum, major duodenal papilla, bile duct, left hepatic duct and f...
Pathological Features and Genomic Characterization of an Actinobacillus equuli subsp. equuli Bearing Unique Virulence-Associated Genes from an Adult Horse with Pleuropneumonia.
Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland)    January 31, 2023   Volume 12, Issue 2 224 doi: 10.3390/pathogens12020224
Kamali M, Carossino M, Del Piero F, Peak L, Mitchell MS, Willette J, Baker R, Li F, Kenu00e9z u00c1, Balasuriya UBR, Go YY. subsp. is the etiological agent of sleepy foal disease, an acute form of fatal septicemia in newborn foals. is commonly found in the mucous membranes of healthy horses' respiratory and alimentary tracts and rarely causes disease in adult horses. In this study, we report a case of a 22-year-old American Paint gelding presenting clinical signs associated with an atypical pattern of pleuropneumonia subjected to necropsy. The gross and histopathological examinations revealed a unilateral fibrinosuppurative and hemorrhagic pleuropneumonia with an infrequent parenchymal distribution and heavy iso...
CT diagnosis of pituitary abscess, suppurative meningitis, and atlanto-occipital septic arthritis in a pony. Vandersmissen M, Wimmer-Scherr CM, Lecoq L, Busoni V, Evrard L.A 15-year-old pony was presented for acute neurological signs. Neurological examination suggested a brainstem lesion, blood laboratory tests detected an active inflammatory process, and upper respiratory endoscopy identified a suppurative lesion at the dorsal aspect of the right guttural pouch. Computed tomography was performed and findings were consistent with pituitary abscess, meningitis, and atlanto-occipital joint septic arthritis. Imaging findings were confirmed based on cerebrospinal and synovial fluid cultures and necropsy. Computed tomography provided important information for identif...
Culture of equine intestinal epithelial stem cells after delayed tissue storage for future applications.
BMC veterinary research    December 23, 2022   Volume 18, Issue 1 445 doi: 10.1186/s12917-022-03552-6
Stewart AS, Schaaf CR, Veerasammy B, Freund JM, Gonzalez LM.Equine intestinal epithelial stem cells (ISCs) serve as potential targets to treat horses with severe intestinal injury. The ability to isolate and store ISCs from intestinal biopsies creates an opportunity for both in vitro experiments to study ISC dynamics in a variety of intestinal diseases, and, in the future, utilize these cells as a possible therapy. If biopsies could be successfully stored prior to processing for ISCs, this would increase the availability of sample repositories for future experimental and therapeutic use. However, delayed culture of equine ISCs following prolonged sampl...
Equine Herpesvirus Type 1 Myeloencephalitis in the Brazilian Amazon.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    December 23, 2022   Volume 13, Issue 1 59 doi: 10.3390/ani13010059
Barbosa JD, Lins AMC, Bomjardim HDA, Silveira NDSES, Barbosa CC, Beuttemmuller EA, Brito MF, Salvarani FM.An investigative and epidemiological study was carried out for equine herpesvirus type 1 (HVE-1) in 10 outbreaks of neurological disease from different farms in the state of Pará, Brazil. 25 horses were studied: six male and 19 females, aged between one and 13 years. A necropsy of six horses was performed, and the others recovered either with or without treatment (T1-vitamin B1 + dexamentasone; T2-vitamin B1 + flunixim meglumine). Animals that received treatment recovered after eight days. The main clinical signs observed were motor incoordination, progressive paresis, thoracic and/or pelvic ...
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