Topic:Public Health

Serological Evidence of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Brazilian Equines.
Microorganisms    November 10, 2023   Volume 11, Issue 11 2743 doi: 10.3390/microorganisms11112743
Salgado CRS, Silva ADNE, Arruda IF, Millar PR, Amendoeira MRR, Leon LAA, Teixeira RBC, de Lima JTB, Chalhoub FLL, Bispo de Filippis AM, Fonseca ABM....Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been demonstrated in various animal species; those recognized as potential zoonotic reservoirs pose a considerable risk to public health. In Brazil, HEV-3 is the only genotype identified in humans and swine nationwide, in a colony-breeding cynomolgus monkey and, recently, in bovines and capybara. There is no information regarding HEV exposure in the equine population in Brazil. This study aimed to investigate anti-HEV antibodies and viral RNA in serum samples from horses slaughtered for meat export and those bred for sport/reproduction purposes. We used a ...
Equine-assisted therapy effectiveness in improving emotion regulation, self-efficacy, and perceived self-esteem of patients suffering from substance use disorders.
BMC complementary medicine and therapies    October 13, 2023   Volume 23, Issue 1 363 doi: 10.1186/s12906-023-04191-6
Souilm N.Substance Use Disorders (SUD) is a universal overwhelming public health problem and is associated with other psychological and mental health ailments such as emotion regulation, perceived self-esteem, and self-efficacy problems. Complementary and alternative medicine may be beneficial. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of equine-assisted therapy in improving emotion regulation, self-efficacy, and perceived self-esteem among patients suffering from substance use disorders. It was carried out using a randomized controlled trial design at Behman hospital, Cairo, Egypt. It incl...
Patterns of horse and camel- related injuries: A descriptive analysis from a national trauma registry (2007-2021).
Injury    October 4, 2023   Volume 54, Issue 12 111093 doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2023.111093
El-Menyar A, Khan NA, Naqvi SGA, Al-Thani H.The large animal-related injuries are emerging major trauma but remain underestimated public health problem worldwide. We aimed to determine the incidence, clinical characteristics, mechanisms and patterns of horse and camel-related injuries (HCRIs) in a Middle Eastern country. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients who were hospitalized due to HCRIs was conducted. Data included patient's demographics, mechanism of injury, anatomical location and severity of injury, and hospital outcomes. Results: Between November 2007 and December 2021, there were 273 hospitalized patients with HCR...
CANTERing towards more sustainable helminth control.
The Veterinary record    September 8, 2023   Volume 193, Issue 5 doi: 10.1002/vetr.3435
Colgate V.Victoria Colgate of Equine Infectious Disease Surveillance introduces CANTER, a voluntary pan-industry initiative that is aiming to inspire behaviour change among horse owners and promote a more sustainable approach to controlling parasites in their animals.
Molecular and Serological Survey of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus in Horses from the Republic of Korea.
Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.)    September 8, 2023   doi: 10.1089/vbz.2022.0101
Han SW, Cho YK, Rim JM, Kang JG, Choi KS, Chae JS. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging zoonotic tick-borne disease in East Asia caused by the SFTS virus (SFTSV). It is to investigate the presence of SFTSV RNA and antibodies in horses from a slaughterhouse and equestrian centers in the Republic of Korea (ROK). A prevalence study of SFTSV-specific RNA and antibodies was designed from 889 horses in the ROK. Serum samples were collected from horses at a slaughterhouse and equestrian centers from 2018 to 2020. To detect the presence of SFTSV, RNA was extracted from the serum samples, and a nested reverse transcriptio...
Gut microbiota changes in horses with Chlamydia.
BMC microbiology    September 2, 2023   Volume 23, Issue 1 246 doi: 10.1186/s12866-023-02986-8
Jin Y, Li W, Ba X, Li Y, Wang Y, Zhang H, Li Z, Zhou J.Zoonotic diseases pose a significant threat to public health. Chlamydia, as an intracellular pathogen, can colonize the intestinal tract of humans and animals, changing the gut microbiota. However, only a few studies have evaluated alterations in the gut microbiota of horses infected with Chlamydia. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate gut microbiota and serum biochemical indicators in horses with Chlamydial infection (IG) and healthy horses (HG). Fecal and blood samples were collected from 16 horses (IG: 10; HG: 6) before morning feeding for the determination of gut microbiota and serum...
Survey of horse transportation in Switzerland: practices and issues.
Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde    August 30, 2023   Volume 165, Issue 9 573-584 doi: 10.17236/sat00402
Benedetti B, Felici M, Thiu00e9baud G, Freccero F, Padalino B.This study aimed to describe equine transportation practices and transport-related behavioural and health problems in Switzerland and to identify possible associations between them. An online survey was disseminated to Swiss equine industry members and questioned respondents' details, transport practices (before, during, and after journeys), horse transport-related behavioural (TRPBs) and health problems (TRHPs) experienced in the previous 2 years. The survey generated 441 valid responses, analysed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression models (outcomes: TRPBs, TRHPs, injuries, d...
Fasciola hepatica infection in horses in three governorates in northern Egypt: prevalence and risk factors.
Journal of equine veterinary science    August 29, 2023   104915 doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2023.104915
Alshammari A, Gattan HS, Marzok M, Salem M, Al-Jabr OA, Selim A.Fasciola hepatica is a trematode parasite that affects wide range of mammalian hosts including horses. There are no epidemiological data on fasciolosis in Egyptian horses. Hence, the present study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of F. hepatica in horses using ELISA as well as assess the associated risk factors for fasciolosis infection. A total of 400 sera samples of horses from three Egyptian governorates were examined. The overall seroprevalence rate in horses was 13% and the disease was more prevalent in Qalubia (14.17%) and Gharbia (16.67%) which are located at Nile Delta. The likelih...
Do mobile phone surfaces carry SARS-CoV-2 virus? A systematic review warranting the inclusion of a “6th” moment of hand hygiene in healthcare.
Journal of infection and public health    August 25, 2023   Volume 16, Issue 11 1750-1760 doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2023.08.017
Olsen M, Demaneuf T, Singh G, Goldsworthy A, Jones P, Morgan M, Nassar R, Senok A, Ghemrawi R, Almheiri R, Marzooqi HA, Almansoori S, Albastaki A....Mobile phones, used in billions throughout the world, are high-touch devices subject to a dynamic contamination of microorganisms and rarely considered as an important fomite to sanitise systematically. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 resulted in the COVID-19 pandemic, arguably the most impactful pandemic of the 21st century with millions of deaths and disruption of all facets of modern life globally. Objective: To perform a systematic review of the literature exploring SARS-CoV-2 presence as a contaminant on mobile phones. Methods: A systematic search (PubMed and Google Scholar) of literature was...
Partial Genome Characterization of Novel Parapoxvirus in Horse, Finland.
Emerging infectious diseases    August 23, 2023   Volume 29, Issue 9 1941-1944 doi: 10.3201/eid2909.230049
Virtanen J, Hautaniemi M, Dutra L, Plyusnin I, Hautala K, Smura T, Vapalahti O, Sironen T, Kant R, Kinnunen PM.We report a sequencing protocol and 121-kb poxvirus sequence from a clinical sample from a horse in Finland with dermatitis. Based on phylogenetic analyses, the virus is a novel parapoxvirus associated with a recent epidemic; previous data suggest zoonotic potential. Increased awareness of this virus and specific diagnostic protocols are needed.
Ferret Models for Henipavirus Infection.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)    August 23, 2023   Volume 2682 205-217 doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-3283-3_15
Rockx B, Mire CE.Henipaviruses are emerging zoonotic viruses that can cause outbreaks of severe respiratory and neurological disease in humans and animals such as horses. The mechanism by which these viruses can cause disease remain largely unknown and to date there are no therapeutics or vaccines approved for use in humans. Nipah virus is listed on the World Health Organization R & D Blueprint list of epidemic threats. In order to advance the availability of effective therapeutics and vaccines and medicines that can be used to save lives and avert large scale crises, animal models are required which recap...
Core genome multilocus sequence typing analysis of Finnish Taylorella equigenitalis isolates.
Veterinary microbiology    August 19, 2023   Volume 285 109853 doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2023.109853
Pelkola K, Heinikainen S, Pohjanvirta T.In Finland, Taylorella equigenitalis, the causative agent of contagious equine metritis (CEM), was first detected in 1992. The aim of this study was to genotype Finnish T. equigenitalis isolates to investigate the epidemiology of the infection in the Finnish horse population. A total of 34 T. equigenitalis isolates from 24 horses obtained during 1992-2021 were subjected to whole genome sequencing (WGS) and subsequent local ad hoc core genome multi-locus sequence typing (cgMLST) targeting 1259 loci. Classical MLST profiles were extracted from the whole-genome sequence data. Three novel MLST ty...
Current and Future Advances in the Detection and Surveillance of Biosecurity-Relevant Equine Bacterial Diseases Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP).
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    August 18, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 16 2663 doi: 10.3390/ani13162663
Knox A, Zerna G, Beddoe T.Horses play an important role throughout the world, whether for work, culture, or leisure, providing an ever-growing significant contribution to the economy. The increase in importation and movement of horses, both nationally and internationally, has inevitably allowed for the global equine industry to grow. Subsequently, however, the potential for transmission of fatal equine bacterial diseases has also escalated, and devasting outbreaks continue to occur. To prevent such events, disease surveillance and diagnosis must be heightened throughout the industry. Current common, or "gold-standard" ...
Understanding the divergent evolution and epidemiology of H3N8 influenza viruses in dogs and horses.
Virus evolution    August 18, 2023   Volume 9, Issue 2 vead052 doi: 10.1093/ve/vead052
Wasik BR, Rothschild E, Voorhees IEH, Reedy SE, Murcia PR, Pusterla N, Chambers TM, Goodman LB, Holmes EC, Kile JC, Parrish CR.Cross-species virus transmission events can lead to dire public health emergencies in the form of epidemics and pandemics. One example in animals is the emergence of the H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV), first isolated in 1963 in Miami, FL, USA, after emerging among horses in South America. In the early 21st century, the American lineage of EIV diverged into two 'Florida' clades that persist today, while an EIV transferred to dogs around 1999 and gave rise to the H3N8 canine influenza virus (CIV), first reported in 2004. Here, we compare CIV in dogs and EIV in horses to reveal their host-spec...
Antibiotic usage in 14 equine practices over a 10-year period (2012-2021).
Equine veterinary journal    August 16, 2023   doi: 10.1111/evj.13988
Tallon RE, Whitt B, Bladon BM.Monitoring antibiotic usage is an important part of tackling antimicrobial resistance. The use of computerised records for monitoring has been previously described in the equine sector but there is currently no consensus on metrics used to report usage. Objective: To document antibiotic use in equine practices in the United Kingdom over a 10-year period using commercially available practice management software. Methods: Retrospective survey. Methods: A custom antibiotic usage report was created using Eclipse® practice management software. Participating practices were given instructions on how...
The Triple-E Model: Advancing Equestrian Research with Perspectives from One Health.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    August 16, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 16 2642 doi: 10.3390/ani13162642
Keener MM, Tumlin KI.Equestrian sport has various welfare issues and educational needs. To address these complex interactions, we propose an integrated approach called the Triple-E Model, which focuses on the equine, equestrian, and environmental triad. A literature review of existing models suggests that complexities of these interactions are overlooked, despite the significant impact of equine industries on economics, healthcare, and animal welfare. This paper discusses current models and theories used to evaluate equine-equestrian-environmental interactions and introduces the Triple-E Model to foster multidisci...
Broad-Host Dissemination of Plasmids Coharboring the fos Operon for Fructooligosaccharide Metabolism with Antibiotic Resistance Genes.
Applied and environmental microbiology    August 14, 2023   Volume 89, Issue 8 e0037123 doi: 10.1128/aem.00371-23
Nohejl T, Palkovicova J, Nesporova K, Valcek A, Lausova J, Dolejska M.The operon encoding short-chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS) utilization enables bacteria of the family to grow and be sustained in environments where they would struggle to survive. Despite several cases of the detection of the operon in isolates of avian and equine origins, its global distribution in bacterial genomes remains unknown. The presence of the plasmid-harbored operon among resistant bacteria may promote the spread of antibiotic resistance. A collection of 11,538 antimicrobial-resistant isolates from various sources was screened for the gene encoding the scFOS transporter. O...
Identification of allergens in Artocarpus heterophyllus, Moringa oleifera, Trianthema portulacastrum and Syzygium samarangense.
Clinical and molecular allergy : CMA    August 11, 2023   Volume 21, Issue 1 6 doi: 10.1186/s12948-023-00187-2
Iddagoda J, Gunasekara P, Handunnetti S, Jeewandara C, Karunatilake C, Malavige GN, de Silva R, Dasanayake D.It is clinically important to identify allergens in Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit), Moringa oleifera (moringa), Trianthema portulacastrum (horse purslane) and Syzygium samarangense (rose apple). This study included 7 patients who developed anaphylaxis to jackfruit (1), moringa (2), horse purslane (3) and rose apple (1). We sought to determine allergens in the edible ripening stages of jackfruit (tender, mature, and ripened jackfruit) and seeds, edible parts of moringa (seeds, seedpod, flesh inside seedpod, and leaves), horse purslane leaves and ripened rose apple fruit. The persistence o...
Wolf contact in horses at permanent pasture in Germany.
PloS one    August 10, 2023   Volume 18, Issue 8 e0289767 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0289767
Krueger K, Gruentjens T, Hempel E.Wolves returned to Germany in 2000, leading to fear in German horse owners that their horses could be in danger of wolf attacks or panic-like escapes from pastures when sighting wolves. However, reports from southern European countries indicate that wolf predation on horses diminishes with increasing presence of wildlife. Therefore, we conducted a long-term, filed observation between January 2015 and July 2022 on 13 non breeding riding horses, mares and geldings, kept permanently on two pastures within the range of wildlife and a stable wolf pack with annual offspring. Wildlife cameras at the ...
Host-mosquito interactions in rural and urban equestrian facilities from temperate Argentina.
Medical and veterinary entomology    August 10, 2023   doi: 10.1111/mve.12686
Cardo MV, Vezzani D.Targeted vector surveillance informed by data on mosquito biting patterns can help limit arboviral zoonotic diseases. To characterise host-biting networks in rural and urban equestrian facilities from temperate Argentina, adult resting mosquitoes were collected (December 2018-April 2019) with a battery-powered aspirator. Engorged females were sorted to species, and their blood source was identified using molecular techniques. Bipartite network analysis was performed for rural and urban matrices. A total of 177 bloodmeals from 11 mosquito species of Aedes and Culex were identified, with seven m...
Anomalous Incidence of Fatal Musculoskeletal Injury in North American 2-Year-Old Thoroughbred Racehorses in the Year 2020.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    August 9, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 16 2572 doi: 10.3390/ani13162572
Bennet ED, Parkin TDH.Racehorse training and racing schedules in many parts of the United States and Canada were interrupted or otherwise reduced during the first three to six months of 2020. This was an indirect consequence of mitigations to prevent the spread of the pandemic virus COVID-19. Data from the Equine Injury Database, a census-level survey of all race starts made in the USA and Canada, were used to analyse the incidence of fatalities in 2009-2022 among three age cohorts of racehorses within each year. There was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of musculoskeletal fatalities among 2-y...
Distribution of West Nile virus cases in horses reveals different spatiotemporal patterns in eastern and western Canada.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association    August 9, 2023   1-9 doi: 10.2460/javma.23.05.0259
Levasseur A, Arsenault J, Paru00e9 J.West Nile virus (WNV) became notifiable in horses in 2003 in Canada and has been reported every year since. The objective of this study was to describe the spatiotemporal distribution of WNV in horses between 2003 and 2020 in Canada. Methods: The 848 symptomatic and laboratory-confirmed WNV cases in horses reported to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency between 2003 and 2020. Methods: Canada was divided into eastern and western regions for analysis. For each case, location and date of notification were captured. Triennial maps were made to describe the spatiotemporal distribution and expansion...
Equine Gunshot Euthanasia: Creation of a 3D-Printed Model with Integrated Sensors for Training.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    August 9, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 16 2566 doi: 10.3390/ani13162566
Dybdal N, Horgan M, Costa L, Davis E, Lucero S, Nieves S, Quiroz V, Weberg K, Madigan JE.Challenges and issues related to the use of pentobarbital euthanasia and disposal of animal remains within the US have recently been reviewed. Environmental and public health challenges increasingly necessitate consideration of alternative methods such as gunshots, an American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) "acceptable with conditions" method, for the humane euthanasia of horses. A recent study reported a correctly aimed gunshot provides a humane option for euthanizing horses. However, although aiming guidelines exist, studies examining bullet trajectories in animals euthanized by gunsh...
A case of bacteremia and pneumonia caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies equi infection in a 70-year-old female following horse exposure in rural Wyoming.
Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials    August 2, 2023   Volume 22, Issue 1 65 doi: 10.1186/s12941-023-00602-1
Bohlman T, Waddell H, Schumaker B.The occurrence of zoonotic infections following an animal exposure continues to be an important consideration for all patients, especially those within agricultural communities. Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi subsp. equi) is a bacteria known to cause a common infection called 'Strangles' in horses. This article highlights a new case of pneumonia and bacteremia in a patient caused by S. equi subsp. equi following strangles exposure in a horse. Rarely has there been reported horse to human transmission of subsp. equi.
Safety and efficacy of a feed additive consisting of an essential oil derived from the fruit of Illicium verum Hook.f. (star anise oil) for use in all animal species (FEFANA asbl).
EFSA journal. European Food Safety Authority    July 31, 2023   Volume 21, Issue 7 e08182 doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2023.8182
Bampidis V, Azimonti G, Bastos ML, Christensen H, Durjava M, Kouba M, López-Alonso M, López Puente S, Marcon F, Mayo B, Pechová A, Petkova M....Following a request from the European Commission, EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of star anise oil from the fruit (without or with the presence of plant leaves) of Illicium verum Hook.f., when used as a sensory additive in feed and water for drinking for all animal species. For long-living and reproductive animals, the Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) considered of low concern the use of the additive in complete feed at 0.6 mg/kg for laying hens and rabbits, 1.0 mg/kg for sows and dairy cows, 1.6 mg/kg f...
Safety and efficacy of a feed additive consisting of an essential oil derived from Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (eucalyptus oil) for all animal species (FEFANA asbl).
EFSA journal. European Food Safety Authority    July 28, 2023   Volume 21, Issue 7 e08178 doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2023.8178
Bampidis V, Azimonti G, Bastos ML, Christensen H, Durjava M, Kouba M, López-Alonso M, López Puente S, Marcon F, Mayo B, Pechová A, Petkova M....Following a request from the European Commission, EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of an essential oil from the leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (eucalyptus oil) when used as a sensory additive in feed and water for drinking for all animal species. The FEEDAP Panel concluded that the use of eucalyptus oil is safe at the following concentrations in complete feed: 12 mg/kg for chickens for fattening, 18 mg/kg for laying hens, 16 mg/kg for turkeys for fattening, 22 mg/kg for piglets, 26 mg/kg for pigs for fattening, 32 mg/kg for ...
Equine Psittacosis and the Emergence of Chlamydia psittaci as an Equine Abortigenic Pathogen in Southeastern Australia: A Retrospective Data Analysis.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    July 28, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 15 2443 doi: 10.3390/ani13152443
El-Hage C, Legione A, Devlin J, Hughes K, Jenkins C, Gilkerson J. is an important zoonotic pathogen. Although primarily a pathogen of birds, from which infection can spillover into humans and other mammalian hosts, the importance of as a cause of equine reproductive loss and the risk of infection to humans in contact with infected horses are increasingly being recognised in Australia and elsewhere. Despite the risks to both human and equine health, infection in horses is incompletely understood. This study aimed to update and summarise cases of equine psittacosis in Australia in the period 2018-2022, thus addressing a knowledge gap relating to recent case...
Hippotherapy concepts: A scoping review to inform transdisciplinary practice guidelines.
Scandinavian journal of occupational therapy    July 26, 2023   1-17 doi: 10.1080/11038128.2023.2231562
du Plessis N, Uys K, Buys T.Hippotherapy, an equine-assisted service, uses the movement of the horse as a treatment tool. Hippotherapy is often used by occupational therapists, physiotherapists, and speech and language pathologists. To optimise hippotherapy and facilitate the development of transdisciplinary hippotherapy practise guidelines, this scoping review identified novel hippotherapy concepts used during hippotherapy interventions for clients with spastic cerebral palsy.
Safety and efficacy of a feed additive consisting of an essential oil derived from the aerial parts of Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) Will. Watson (lemongrass oil) for use in all animal species (FEFANA asbl).
EFSA journal. European Food Safety Authority    July 26, 2023   Volume 21, Issue 7 e08180 doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2023.8180
Bampidis V, Azimonti G, Bastos ML, Christensen H, Durjava M, Kouba M, López-Alonso M, López Puente S, Marcon F, Mayo B, Pechová A, Petkova M....Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of lemongrass oil obtained from the aerial parts of Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) Will. Watson when used as a sensory additive for all animal species. The FEEDAP Panel concluded that lemongrass oil is safe up to the maximum proposed use levels in complete feed of 125 mg/kg for salmonids; 100 mg/kg for sows and horses; 75 mg/kg for veal calves (milk replacer), cattle for fattening,...
Molecular prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in slaughtered equids in Northern Tunisia.
Journal of equine veterinary science    July 26, 2023   104894 doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2023.104894
Amairia S, Jbeli M, Mrabet S, Jebabli LM, Gharbi M.Sarcocystis spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are two apicomplexan protozoa that infect a broad range of vertebrates, however, little is known about the infection of equids with these parasites. A total of 184 slaughtered equids from slaughterhouses of Bizerte and Tunis located in Northern Tunisia, were examined for meat infections with Sarcocystis spp. and T. gondii by PCR. The prevalence of infections with Sarcocystis spp. and T. gondii were 38% (95% CI: 31-45) and 39.7% (95% CI: 32.6-46.7), respectively. The highest prevalence of infection with Sarcocystis spp. was observed in donkeys (48.6%; 95%C...
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