Topic:Mortality

Anaesthesia-related morbidity associated with recumbent, low-field magnetic resonance imaging of horses.
New Zealand veterinary journal    April 7, 2024   Volume 72, Issue 3 141-147 doi: 10.1080/00480169.2024.2321176
Myhre MG, Azeem A, Barrett M.Medical records from 2009 to 2021 from a private equine referral hospital in Rochester, NH, USA were analysed for cases that underwent general anaesthesia for low-field MRI of the distal limb. These were used to determine peri-anaesthetic morbidity and mortality. Unassigned: Two hundred and forty-three anaesthetic episodes were recorded in horses undergoing low-field MRI. The peri-anaesthetic complication rate prior to discharge was 6.2% (15/243). No patients experienced a fatal complication. Ninety two of the 243 patients had multiple sites imaged, 90/243 received pre-anaesthetic dantrolene, ...
Condylar fracture location is correlated to exercise history in Thoroughbred racehorses.
Equine veterinary journal    April 7, 2024   doi: 10.1111/evj.14091
Bergstrom TC, Spriet M, Carpenter RS, Jacques KL, Stover SM.Condylar fractures are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Thoroughbred racehorses. Condylar fractures have a variety of fracture configurations that suggest there may be differences in aetiopathogenesis. Objective: To determine if exercise history differs with condylar fracture location in a population of Thoroughbred racehorses. Methods: Retrospective analysis of clinical and exercise data. Methods: Exercise history of Thoroughbred racehorses that had condylar fracture repair between 1 January 2018 and 28 February 2021 was compared between racehorses that had fractures located radiog...
Optimization of the Amplification of Equine Muscle-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in a Hollow-Fiber Bioreactor.
Methods and protocols    April 2, 2024   Volume 7, Issue 2 32 doi: 10.3390/mps7020032
Duysens J, Graide H, Niesten A, Mouithys-Mickalad A, Ceusters J, Serteyn D.The main causes of mortality in horses are the gastrointestinal pathologies associated with septic shock. Stem cells have shown, through systemic injection, a capacity to decrease inflammation and to regenerate injured tissue faster. Nevertheless, to achieve this rapid and total regeneration, systemic injections of 1 to 2 million cells per kilogram of body weight must be considered. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility and expansion capacity of equine muscle-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (mdMSCs) in a functionally closed, automated, perfusion-based, hollow-fiber bioreact...
Epidemiology of horse trauma: a literature review. Neville EK, Hicks H, Neville CC.Horses are used for many recreational and occupational activities. They are large, strong, temperamental, and unpredictable animals and people involved with them are at risk for injuries, from minor abrasions to severe injuries that may lead to death. This review reports on horse trauma in relation to the characteristics of injured equestrians, characteristics of horse trauma, and clinical outcomes. Methods: A literature search was conducted from health-related electronic databases to identify studies from 2018 to 2023. The search returned 115 relevant full-text articles but after screening an...
The impact of age on vitamin D receptor expression, vitamin D metabolism and cytokine production in ex vivo Rhodococcus equi infection of equine alveolar macrophages.
Veterinary immunology and immunopathology    January 2, 2024   Volume 268 110707 doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2023.110707
Berghaus LJ, Cathcart J, Berghaus RD, Ryan C, Toribio RE, Hart KA.Rhodococcus equi (R. equi), a pneumonia-causing intracellular bacterium, results in significant morbidity and mortality in young foals, while healthy adult horses rarely develop disease. Survival and replication within alveolar macrophages (AMφ) are the hallmarks of R. equi's pathogenicity. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) and its ligand, the active vitamin D metabolite 1,25(OH)D, are important in immune responses to intracellular bacteria. The vitamin D/VDR pathway regulates the downstream production of cytokines in infected human AMφ. The immunomodulatory role of the vitamin D/VDR pathway in e...
Effects of Horse Meat Hydrolysate on Oxidative Stress, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and the Ubiquitin-Proteasomal System of C2C12 Cells.
Food science of animal resources    January 1, 2024   Volume 44, Issue 1 132-145 doi: 10.5851/kosfa.2023.e65
Lee HJ, Kim D, Do K, Yang CB, Jeon SW, Jang A.Sarcopenia, the age-related muscle atrophy, is a serious concern as it is associated with frailty, reduced physical functions, and increased mortality risk. Protein supplementation is essential for preserving muscle mass, and horse meat can be an excellent source of proteins. Since sarcopenia occurs under conditions of oxidative stress, this study aimed to investigate the potential anti-muscle atrophy effect of horse meat hydrolysate using C2C12 cells. A horse meat hydrolysate less than 3 kDa (A4<3kDa) significantly increased the viability of C2C12 myoblasts against HO-induced cytotoxicity....
A cross-sectional study of colic and rate of return to racing in Thoroughbreds at Seoul Racecourse in Korea between 2010 and 2020.
Journal of veterinary science    November 30, 2023   Volume 24, Issue 6 e81 doi: 10.4142/jvs.23165
Ryu SH, Sohn Y, Forbes E, Jeon HS, An SJ, Kim BS, Kyung SG, Lee I.The incidence of colic and the outcomes of colic surgery have not been surveyed in racetracks in Korea. Objective: This study examined the incidence, mortality, and case fatality of colic and investigated the effects of age and sex after an exploratory celiotomy on the long-term survival rate (return to racing), subsequent racing performance, and career longevity. Methods: The incidence, mortality, and case fatalities of colic were examined over an 11-year period. The records of 40 horses that had undergone a celiotomy, after participating in at least one race and 75 race-matched control horse...
[Morbidity and mortality of mare and foal following dystocia – a literature review].
Tierarztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere    November 13, 2023   Volume 51, Issue 5 314-326 doi: 10.1055/a-2180-2182
Ellerbrock M, Wehrend A.Dystocia represents a life-threatening condition for mare and foal. Morbidity and mortality rates due to a difficult birth, as well as the influence on fertility of the mare were analyzed, based on a review of publications. This was aggravated by the fact that no standardized diagnostic code was used and that most publications do not clearly describe how extensively the examinations were performed beforehand. Retentio secundinarum is the most common complication caused by dystocia. Other complications are injuries to the soft birth canal and the colon. These occur more frequently after surgica...
Risk factors associated with development of colitis in horses post-exploratory laparotomy.
Equine veterinary journal    November 7, 2023   doi: 10.1111/evj.14028
Givan SA, Estell KE, Martinez-Lopez J, Brown JA, Wong DM, Werre SR.Diagnosis of colitis has been shown to impact morbidity and mortality in hospitalised horses. There are no studies to date that describe the incidence of infectious colitis after exploratory laparotomy. Objective: To investigate risk factors associated with the development of colitis and infectious colitis post-exploratory laparotomy. Methods: Retrospective case-control. Methods: Medical records of equids admitted from 2011 to 2020 were reviewed. The primary outcome was a diagnosis of colitis following exploratory laparotomy. Bivariable associations between colitis and risk factors were assess...
Patterns of horse and camel- related injuries: A descriptive analysis from a national trauma registry (2007-2021).
Injury    October 4, 2023   Volume 54, Issue 12 111093 doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2023.111093
El-Menyar A, Khan NA, Naqvi SGA, Al-Thani H.The large animal-related injuries are emerging major trauma but remain underestimated public health problem worldwide. We aimed to determine the incidence, clinical characteristics, mechanisms and patterns of horse and camel-related injuries (HCRIs) in a Middle Eastern country. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients who were hospitalized due to HCRIs was conducted. Data included patient's demographics, mechanism of injury, anatomical location and severity of injury, and hospital outcomes. Results: Between November 2007 and December 2021, there were 273 hospitalized patients with HCR...
Sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy in animals: From experimental studies to echocardiography-based clinical research.
The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne    September 4, 2023   Volume 64, Issue 9 871-877 
Naseri A, Akyuz E, Turgut K, Guzelbektes H, Sen I.The term "sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy" (SIC) is used to describe transient cardiac dysfunction in septic patients. However, there is no universally accepted definition of SIC; a reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is often used. In addition to systolic dysfunction, diastolic dysfunction is now recognized as an essential component of SIC. It can be emphasized that previous animal experiments played an essential role in revealing SIC and hemodynamic instability in sepsis and septic shock. The diagnostic and prognostic capabilities of echocardiography for the assessment of SI...
Clinical findings, surgical techniques, prognostic factors for short-term survival and long-term outcome in horses with acquired inguinal hernias: Ninety-eight cases (2005-2020).
Veterinary surgery : VS    August 31, 2023   doi: 10.1111/vsu.14023
Franu00e7ois I, Lepage OM, Schramme MC, Salciccia A, Detilleux J, Grulke S.To report findings, outcome and determine variables associated with survival in horses with acquired inguinal hernia (AIH). Methods: Retrospective study. Methods: A total of 98 cases in 97 horses. Methods: The medical records (2005-2020) of horses diagnosed with AIH were reviewed. Retrieved data included signalment, history, clinical variables, surgical aspects, postoperative complications, and short- and long-term outcomes. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with short-term survival (p < .05). Results: Manual reduction was attempted in a third of the...
Clostridioides difficile infection in thoroughbred horses in Japan from 2010 to 2021.
Scientific reports    August 11, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 1 13099 doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-40157-x
Uchida-Fujii E, Niwa H, Senoh M, Kato H, Kinoshita Y, Mita H, Ueno T.We encountered 34 Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) infection (CDI) cases among Thoroughbred horses in Japan from 2010 to 2021. Among them, 79.4% (27/34) either died or were euthanised. The risk factors associated with CDI and mortality among Japanese Thoroughbred horses remain unclear. We used genetic methods to examine C. difficile strains and their relationships with prognosis. Twenty-two (64.7%) cases were hospitalised at the onset of colitis. Outcomes were balanced for hospitalisation rates at the onset of colitis. The mortality rates of cases treated with metronidazole (65.0%) were...
Anomalous Incidence of Fatal Musculoskeletal Injury in North American 2-Year-Old Thoroughbred Racehorses in the Year 2020.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    August 9, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 16 2572 doi: 10.3390/ani13162572
Bennet ED, Parkin TDH.Racehorse training and racing schedules in many parts of the United States and Canada were interrupted or otherwise reduced during the first three to six months of 2020. This was an indirect consequence of mitigations to prevent the spread of the pandemic virus COVID-19. Data from the Equine Injury Database, a census-level survey of all race starts made in the USA and Canada, were used to analyse the incidence of fatalities in 2009-2022 among three age cohorts of racehorses within each year. There was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of musculoskeletal fatalities among 2-y...
Risk factors for horse fatality in Thoroughbred jumps racing in New Zealand.
Journal of equine veterinary science    August 4, 2023   doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2023.104897
Gibson MJ, Legg KA, Gee EK, Rogers CW.The aim of this study was to examine the race-, horse- and jockey-level risk factors for race day fatality in New Zealand Thoroughbred jumps racing using retrospective race day data from the 2011/12 - 2021/22 seasons (n = 8,970 starts). There were 51 race day fatalities resulting in an incidence rate of 5.7 per 1,000 starts (95% C.I. 4.3 - 7.5). The majority of fatalities were the result of fractures (44/51, 4.9 per 1,000 starts, 95% C.I. 3.7 - 6.6). Steeplechase and hurdle races had the same incidence of fatal fractures of 4.9 per 1,000 starts (95% C.I. 3.7-6.6, p > 0.05). Most (70.5%) of...
Relationship between the Cycle Threshold Value (Ct) of a Salmonella spp. qPCR Performed on Feces and Clinical Signs and Outcome in Horses.
Microorganisms    July 30, 2023   Volume 11, Issue 8 1950 doi: 10.3390/microorganisms11081950
Amory H, Cesarini C, De Maru00e9 L, Loublier C, Moula N, Detilleux J, Saulmont M, Garigliany MM, Lecoq L.The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical significance of fecal quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results when taking the cycle threshold values (Ct) into account. The study included 120 qPCR-positive fecal samples obtained from 88 hospitalized horses over a 2-year period. The mean Ct of the qPCR test was evaluated in regard to (1) clinical outcome and (2) systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) status (no SIRS, moderate SIRS, or severe SIRS) of the sampled horses. An ROC analysis was performed to establish the optimal cut-off Ct valu...
Gastrojejunostomy as a treatment for gastric outflow disorders in four adult horses.
Australian veterinary journal    May 30, 2023   Volume 101, Issue 8 302-307 doi: 10.1111/avj.13249
Brabon A, Labens R, Ramachandran A, Dart AJ, Dowling BA.Four adult horses with histories of moderate abdominal pain and inappetence were diagnosed with delayed gastric emptying and gastric impaction attributed to pyloroduodenal obstruction (three cases) or duodenitis (one case). A stapled side-to-side gastrojejunostomy was performed on all horses. Two horses returned to work and survived ≥3 years. One horse was euthanased 6 months post-surgery due to recurrent abdominal pain, and one was found dead 5 months postsurgery after an unattended foaling.
Ingesta-associated choledocholithiasis in horses: 2 cases and literature review. Linn-Peirano SC, Hepworth-Warren K, Kinsella H, Diaz-Campos D, Brenseke BM, Cianciolo RE, Schroeder E, Schreeg ME.Equine ingesta-associated choledocholithiasis is a rare cause of morbidity and mortality. We describe here the clinical, gross, histologic, and microbiologic features of this condition in 2 horses and compare the features to 2 previous cases. Case 1 was a 4-y-old Thoroughbred mare with colic. Case 2 was an 18-y-old American Paint Horse mare with colic, chronic weight loss, and inappropriate mentation. Both had elevated biochemical markers of hepatocellular injury and cholestasis and were euthanized given a poor prognosis. Case 1 had a well-formed 5-cm choledocholith surrounding a piece of hay,...
Recumbency decreases mare and foal survival following in-hospital dystocia management.
Equine veterinary journal    May 25, 2023   doi: 10.1111/evj.13956
Roe H, Macpherson M, Denagamage T, Hopper S, Woodie B, Embertson R.Mare and foal survival are increased with prompt dystocia management. Data regarding mortality outcomes in mares and foals, when mares are recumbent at admission for dystocia resolution, are scarce. Objective: To evaluate recumbency at hospital admission as a risk factor for survival of mares and foals following dystocia management. Subsequent mare fertility was also evaluated. Methods: Retrospective cohort. Methods: Data were obtained from medical records at Rood and Riddle Equine Hospital of mares with dystocia between 1995 and 2018. Mare signalment, ambulation status, survival data and foal...
Incidence of disease, injury and death in Thoroughbred foals and yearlings on stud farms in the UK and Ireland.
The Veterinary record    May 14, 2023   Volume 192, Issue 12 e2994 doi: 10.1002/vetr.2994
Mouncey R, Arango-Sabogal JC, de Mestre AM, Verheyen KL.Up-to-date estimates of early-life morbidity and mortality in Thoroughbreds are lacking. Methods: A birth cohort was established on Thoroughbred stud farms across the UK and Ireland. All veterinary interventions for disease or injury between birth and 18 months of age or leaving the study were recorded. Multilevel Poisson regression models with farm and foal as random effects were fitted to estimate incidence rates. Results: Data were available for 3328 foal-months at risk for 275 foals on seven farms. The overall rates of disease and injury requiring veterinary intervention and mortality were...
Characterization of Raid Hipico Uruguayo Competencies by Ride Type: Causes of Death and Risk Factors.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    May 10, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 10 1602 doi: 10.3390/ani13101602
Brito G, Damiu00e1n JP, Suu00e1rez G, Ruprechter G, Trigo P.RHU is the oldest endurance sport in Uruguay. However, despite 80 years of racing, there are no studies to characterize this type of competition, explore rates and causes of death, and identify the associated risk factors. The aim was to characterize the Raid Hipico Uruguayo (RHU) competencies according to the distance (short (SR, 60 km) vs. long (LR, 80-115 km)), the causes of deaths, and the associated risk factors. The study population comprised horses ( = 16,856) that participated in RHU rides from 2007 to 2018. LR were more frequent than SR ( < 0.001). The average speed of winners was ...
Recurrent Colic: Diagnosis, Management, and Expectations.
The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice    April 28, 2023   Volume 39, Issue 2 399-417 doi: 10.1016/j.cveq.2023.03.014
Mair T, Sherlock C.Most recurrent episodes of non-specific colic are self-limiting, and the results of clinical examinations are unremarkable. Differentiating these cases from serious diseases can be difficult, but repeated evaluations are warranted. Horses presenting with very frequent bouts of colic are more likely to have serious diseases and a higher mortality rate compared to horses presenting with less frequent bouts of transient colic. Horses with recurrent bouts of prolonged colic are more likely to have motility issues or partial intestinal obstruction. Non-gastrointestinal diseases can also cause recur...
Short-Term Survival and Postoperative Complications Rates in Horses Undergoing Colic Surgery: A Multicentre Study.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    March 20, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 6 1107 doi: 10.3390/ani13061107
Spadari A, Gialletti R, Gandini M, Valle E, Cerullo A, Cavallini D, Bertoletti A, Rinnovati R, Forni G, Scilimati N, Giusto G.The occurrence of colic could be influenced by the characteristics of a population, geographical area, and feeding management. The aim of this study was to report the short-term postoperative complications and survival rates and to identify factors that might affect the outcome of horses that underwent colic surgery in three Italian surgical referral centres. Data of horses subjected to colic surgery in three referral centres (2018-2021) were analysed. Comparisons of the outcomes were performed using a Mann-Whitney or a Chi square test. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) c...
Towards a safer sport: Risk factors for cross-country horse falls at British Eventing competition.
Equine veterinary journal    March 14, 2023   doi: 10.1111/evj.13934
Cameron-Whytock HA, Parkin TDH, Hobbs SJ, Brigden CV, Bennet ED.Equestrian eventing is a dangerous Olympic sport, with 16 rider and 69 horse fatalities at competition in the last 10 years. Despite this, there is limited research that aims to improve safety within the sport. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for horse falls, which are the leading cause of rider fatality within the sport. Methods: Retrospective cohort study. Methods: Competition data between January 2005 and December 2015 were analysed. Descriptive statistics followed by univariable logistic regression to identify risk factors for inclusion in a multivariabl...
Serum amyloid A does not predict non-survival in hospitalised adult horses with acute colitis.
The Veterinary record    February 13, 2023   Volume 192, Issue 7 e2644 doi: 10.1002/vetr.2644
Runge KE, Bak M, Vestergaard A, Staerk-u00d8stergaard J, Jacobsen S, Pihl TH.Predicting non-survival in horses with acute colitis improves early decision making. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prognostic value of serum amyloid A (SAA) and other clinicopathological and clinical variables in adult horses with acute colitis. Methods: Clinical variables, SAA and other blood biomarkers, including plasma L-lactate (lactate), were assessed in 176 horses with acute colitis. A multivariate model for the prediction of non-survival was constructed. Icelandic horses were analysed separately. Results: Admission SAA was similar in survivors (median 548 mg/L; range...
The Reporting of Racehorse Fatalities in New Zealand Thoroughbred Flat Racing in the 2011/12-2021/22 Seasons.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    February 9, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 4 612 doi: 10.3390/ani13040612
Gibson MJ, Legg KA, Gee EK, Rogers CW.Race day fatalities as a consequence of catastrophic musculoskeletal injury and cardiac failure are both a welfare concern and provide a challenge for the social perceptions of equine welfare within the racing industry. To reduce race day fatalities, the risk factors under New Zealand racing conditions need to be identified. The aim of this study was to examine race and horse-level risk factors for fatalities in New Zealand Thoroughbred flat racing using retrospective race day data from the 2011/12-2021/22 racing seasons. Horse and race-level factors associated with a suspected cardiac failure...
Fatal Animal Related Incidents on Australian Farms – a 20-Year Review.
Journal of agromedicine    January 30, 2023   Volume 28, Issue 3 553-560 doi: 10.1080/1059924X.2023.2171523
Peachey KL, Lower T. To assess demographic and causal factors of fatal farm incidents involving animals in Australia. Descriptive study of the National Coronial Information System for persons fatally injured by an animal on an Australian farm over the 2001-20 period. Data were analysed in relation to age, sex, state where incident occurred, work-relatedness and causal agents. There has been little change in the mean number of animal-related injury deaths across Australia in the 2001-20 period (mean 6.5), however this is a 35% reduction on an earlier 1989-92 assessment (mean 10). The majority of incidents (81%) ...
Diagnosis of Aspergillosis in Horses.
Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland)    January 25, 2023   Volume 9, Issue 2 161 doi: 10.3390/jof9020161
Dobiu00e1u0161 R, Jahn P, Tu00f3thovu00e1 K, Dobeu0161ovu00e1 O, Viu0161u0148ovsku00e1 D, Patil R, u0160kru00edba A, Jaworsku00e1 P, u0160koriu010d M....Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) may be a rare cause of granulomatous pneumonia in horses. The mortality of IPA is almost 100%; direct diagnostic tools in horses are needed. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum samples were collected from 18 horses, including individuals suffering from IPA (n = 1), equine asthma (EA, n = 12), and 5 healthy controls. Serum samples were collected from another 6 healthy controls. Samples of BALF (n = 18) were analyzed for spp. DNA, fungal galactomannan (GM), ferricrocin (Fc), triacetylfusarinin C (TafC), and gliotoxin (Gtx). Analysis of 24 serum s...
Risk of anesthesia-related complications in draft horses: a retrospective, single-center analysis.
Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia    December 11, 2022   Volume 50, Issue 2 157-162 doi: 10.1016/j.vaa.2022.12.002
O'Donovan KA, Aarnes TK, Hubbell JA, Parker EM, Mollenkopf D, Lerche P, Ricco Pereira CH, Bini G, Bednarski RM.To report anesthetic-related complications and determine risks associated with anesthesia in draft horses. Methods: Retrospective study. Methods: A total of 401 anesthetic records for draft horse breeds that underwent general anesthesia from January 2010 through December 2020 were reviewed; horses euthanized during general anesthesia were excluded. Methods: Demographics, perioperative drugs used, procedure type and duration, time to extubation, number of attempts to stand, use of sling in recovery and perioperative morbidity and mortality were investigated. Morbidity and mortality statistical ...
Early embryonic death in equines and camelids.
Open veterinary journal    December 1, 2022   Volume 12, Issue 6 903-909 doi: 10.5455/OVJ.2022.v12.i6.16
Ashraf R, Rashid S, Rasheed I, Asif S.This paper includes the study of early embryonic death (EED), predisposing factors of EED and treatment. EED refers to the fetal mortality which varies in mare and camelids but most probably not later than 50 days of gestation. This duration may be divided into very early mortality, early mortality and late embryonic mortality. This also varies in mare and camelids. There are different embryonic, maternal, environmental/external, and infectious and noninfectious factors which lead to early embryonic loss. Diagnosis is very difficult as in most of the cases resorption of fetus occurs but it is ...
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