Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia2022; 50(2); 157-162; doi: 10.1016/j.vaa.2022.12.002

Risk of anesthesia-related complications in draft horses: a retrospective, single-center analysis.

Abstract: To report anesthetic-related complications and determine risks associated with anesthesia in draft horses. Methods: Retrospective study. Methods: A total of 401 anesthetic records for draft horse breeds that underwent general anesthesia from January 2010 through December 2020 were reviewed; horses euthanized during general anesthesia were excluded. Methods: Demographics, perioperative drugs used, procedure type and duration, time to extubation, number of attempts to stand, use of sling in recovery and perioperative morbidity and mortality were investigated. Morbidity and mortality statistical evaluation included univariable logistic regression analysis and ordinal regression analysis. Results: American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status I-II, ASA III-V and total mortality rate for all cases was 0.69% (2/288), 6.19% (7/113) and 2.24% (9/401), respectively, with Belgian horses being overrepresented (6/9). Cardiac arrest occurred in six out of nine horses that died without euthanasia, and five out of six of these horses underwent colic surgery. Factors associated with increased mortality risk included ASA status of III-V, increased body weight, emergency status and horses presenting for colic. Hypotension, hypercarbia and hypoxemia occurred in 56% (224/401), 46% (186/401) and 14% (58/401) of horses, respectively. During recovery from anesthesia, lighter horses and horses undergoing shorter anesthetic procedures were more likely to be successful on the first or second attempt to stand and were less likely to require a sling in recovery. Conclusions: Draft horses undergoing general anesthesia had a higher mortality rate than previously reported for all types and breeds of horses.
Publication Date: 2022-12-11 PubMed ID: 36577561DOI: 10.1016/j.vaa.2022.12.002Google Scholar: Lookup
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  • Journal Article

Summary

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This research article conducts a retrospective examination of draft horse anesthesia cases to identify the related complications and their risk factors. The study observes a higher overall mortality rate for draft horses, with specific factors contributing to increased risk.

Methodology

  • The research is based on a retrospective examination, which means historical data from past cases has been analyzed in order to derive relevant insights.
  • The total sample size of the study was 401 anesthetic records of draft horse breeds, where horses which were euthanized during general anesthesia were excluded.
  • An extensive list of factors was investigated, including demographics, type and duration of procedure, time to extubation, number of attempts to stand, use of sling in recovery, and perioperative morbidity and mortality.
  • Statistical evaluation techniques used in the research include univariable logistic regression analysis and ordinal regression analysis.

Results

  • The mortality rate for all horses, irrespective of their American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status, was found to be 2.24%.
  • Belgian horses appeared to be more susceptible to anesthesia-related death as they were overrepresented in the mortality data.
  • Cardiac arrest was a common thread among horses that died non-euthanastically, especially those that underwent colic surgery.
  • Risk factors that were associated with an increased mortality risk included high ASA status (III-V), increased body weight, emergency status, and horses presenting for colic.
  • Data indicated that hypotension, hypercarbia, and hypoxemia were complications evident in 56%, 46%, and 14% of the horses, respectively.
  • During recovery from anesthesia, lighter horses and those undergoing shorter anesthetic procedures were more likely to successfully stand on first or second attempts and were less likely to require a sling in recovery.

Conclusion

  • The overall conclusion drawn from this research is that draft horses undergoing general anesthesia have a higher mortality rate than previously reported in other types and breeds of horses. This is critical information that contributes to understanding anesthesia-related risk areas in draft horses.

Cite This Article

APA
O'Donovan KA, Aarnes TK, Hubbell JA, Parker EM, Mollenkopf D, Lerche P, Ricco Pereira CH, Bini G, Bednarski RM. (2022). Risk of anesthesia-related complications in draft horses: a retrospective, single-center analysis. Vet Anaesth Analg, 50(2), 157-162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2022.12.002

Publication

ISSN: 1467-2995
NlmUniqueID: 100956422
Country: United States
Language: English
Volume: 50
Issue: 2
Pages: 157-162
PII: S1467-2987(22)00214-8

Researcher Affiliations

O'Donovan, Kathrin A
  • The Ohio State University Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA.
Aarnes, Turi K
  • The Ohio State University Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address: aarnes.1@osu.edu.
Hubbell, John Ae
  • Rood and Riddle Equine Hospital, Lexington, KY, USA.
Parker, Elizabeth M
  • The Ohio State University Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA.
Mollenkopf, Dixie
  • The Ohio State University Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA.
Lerche, Phillip
  • The Ohio State University Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA.
Ricco Pereira, Carolina H
  • The Ohio State University Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA.
Bini, Gianluca
  • The Ohio State University Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA.
Bednarski, Richard M
  • The Ohio State University Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA.

MeSH Terms

  • Horses
  • Animals
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Colic / veterinary
  • Anesthesia, General / adverse effects
  • Anesthesia, General / veterinary
  • Anesthesiology
  • Anesthetics
  • Horse Diseases / chemically induced
  • Horse Diseases / surgery

Citations

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