Journal of veterinary internal medicine2005; 18(6); 887-894; doi: 10.1892/0891-6640(2004)18<887:teovds>2.0.co;2

The effect of varying dietary starch and fat content on serum creatine kinase activity and substrate availability in equine polysaccharide storage myopathy.

Abstract: The effect of dietary starch and fat content on serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and substrate availability was evaluated in 4 mares of Quarter Horse-related breeds with polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM). Four isocaloric diets ranging in digestible energy (DE) from 21.2% (diet A), 14.8% (B), 8.4% (C), to 3.9% (D) for starch, and 7.2% DE (diet A), 9.9% (B), to 12.7% DE (diet C and D) for fat were fed for 6-week periods (4 weeks with exercise) using a 4 X 4 Latin square design. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses were measured, and 4 hours postexercise, serum CK activity, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), and beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-HBA) were analyzed. Glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate, citrate synthase, 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase as well as abnormal polysaccharide and lipid content were measured in middle gluteal muscle samples. Postprandial insulin and glucose response was higher for diet A versus D. Log CK activity was higher with diets A, B, and C versus D. Daily insulin was higher and FFA lower on diet A versus B, C, and D, whereas glucose varied only slightly with diet. Muscle oxidative capacity and lipid stores were low in PSSM horses and muscle glycogen and abnormal polysaccharide content high on both diets A and D. Individual variation occurred in the response of PSSM horses to diets differing in starch and fat content. However, for those horses with clinical manifestations of PSSM, a diet with 12% DE fat can reduce exertional rhabdomyolysis, potentially by increasing availability of FFA for muscle metabolism.
Publication Date: 2005-01-11 PubMed ID: 15638274DOI: 10.1892/0891-6640(2004)18<887:teovds>2.0.co;2Google Scholar: Lookup
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  • Clinical Trial
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support
  • Non-U.S. Gov't

Summary

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This research evaluated the impact of altering starch and fat content in the diets of horses with Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy (PSSM), focusing on its effect on creatine kinase activity and nutrient availability. The study indicates that horses affected by PSSM may benefit from a diet low in starch and high in fat content, potentially resulting in a decrease in exercise-induced muscle breakdown as this change improves the availability of free fatty acids for muscle metabolism.

Research Methodology

  • The researchers conducted a study on four mares of Quarter Horse-related breeds, all diagnosed with PSSM, a genetic muscle condition in horses.
  • Four isocaloric diets with varying levels of digestible energy from starch and fat were introduced to the horses over six-week periods that included four weeks of exercise. This was carried out following a 4 X 4 Latin square design, which is a statistical design used in small-scale experiments.
  • After meals, the researchers collected data on glucose and insulin responses and recorded serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), and beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-HBA) four hours post exercise.
  • They also tested samples from the horses’ middle gluteal muscles to check glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate, citrate synthase, 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, abnormal polysaccharide, and lipid content.

Study Findings

  • The investigation revealed that the post-meal insulin and glucose response was higher for horses on diet A (high in starch) as opposed to diet D (low in starch).
  • Moreover, Creatine Kinase activity logarithmically increased with diets high in starch content (diets A, B, and C) versus the low starch diet D.
  • Daily insulin was higher and FFA lower on diet A compared to other diets (B, C, and D) whereas glucose level exhibited minor variations irrespective of the diet.
  • The research also uncovered low muscle oxidative capacity and lipid stores in PSSM horses, and it also recorded high muscle glycogen and abnormal polysaccharide content in horses fed both high and low in starch diets (A and D).
  • The study also noted individual variations in how PSSM horses responded to diets differing in starch and fat content.

Conclusion

  • For horses showing clinical symptoms of PSSM, a diet that contains less than 5% digestible energy from starch and more than 12% from fat may help reduce exertional rhabdomyolysis – a muscle disorder in horses typically due to intense exercise or overworking.
  • This proposed dietary recommendation is based on the notion that increasing the availability of free fatty acids for muscle metabolism may aid in minimising muscle breakdown in PSSM horses. However, further research is required to validate these findings, due to the individual variations observed in the study.

Cite This Article

APA
Ribeiro WP, Valberg SJ, Pagan JD, Gustavsson BE. (2005). The effect of varying dietary starch and fat content on serum creatine kinase activity and substrate availability in equine polysaccharide storage myopathy. J Vet Intern Med, 18(6), 887-894. https://doi.org/10.1892/0891-6640(2004)18<887:teovds>2.0.co;2

Publication

ISSN: 0891-6640
NlmUniqueID: 8708660
Country: United States
Language: English
Volume: 18
Issue: 6
Pages: 887-894

Researcher Affiliations

Ribeiro, W P
  • Department of Veterinary Population Medicine , College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA.
Valberg, S J
    Pagan, J D
      Gustavsson, B Essen

        MeSH Terms

        • Animals
        • Creatine Kinase / blood
        • Creatine Kinase / drug effects
        • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage
        • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage
        • Female
        • Horse Diseases / blood
        • Horse Diseases / diet therapy
        • Horses
        • Physical Conditioning, Animal
        • Rhabdomyolysis / diet therapy
        • Rhabdomyolysis / veterinary

        Citations

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