Journal of equine veterinary science2018; 64; 81-88; doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2018.02.021

Treatment of Hydropsical Conditions Using Transcervical Gradual Fetal Fluid Drainage in Mares With or Without Concurrent Abdominal Wall Disease.

Abstract: Hydropsical conditions are exceedingly rare in the horse. However, when they occur, they are true emergencies due to the severe enlargement of the pregnant uterus, which can result in clinical signs, such as an enlarged round abdomen, dyspnea, reluctance to walk, and colic, and may lead to the development of abdominal wall disease. The pathogenesis of hydropsical conditions is not fully elucidated, but they have been associated with placentitis and fetal abnormalities. This report describes six cases of hydropsical conditions in mares with or without concurrent abdominal wall disease. Five out of six cases were hydrallantois, and of these five, two mares had abdominal wall disease; the remaining one out of six cases was hydramnios. All mares were treated by termination of the pregnancy through gradual fluid drainage transcervically over a number of hours, and their fetuses were delivered vaginally. All fetuses were euthanized immediately after vaginal delivery. Of the six mares, two had signs of placentitis, two were confirmed seropositive for leptospirosis, and two were euthanized (one because of a vaginal tear that communicated through the peritoneum and one mare that developed abdominal wall rupture and laminitis). The remaining 4 mares were available for follow-up; three mares were not rebred, and one mare became an embryo donor, with a successful embryo recovery. We reported the prevalence of leptospira involvement in two out of six cases of hydrallantois and also described the clinical outcome of the mares after treatment with slow fetal fluid drainage.
Publication Date: 2018-02-27 PubMed ID: 30973158DOI: 10.1016/j.jevs.2018.02.021Google Scholar: Lookup
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  • Journal Article

Summary

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This research examines six rare cases of overgrowth of the pregnant uterus, or hydropsical conditions, in horses. The study observes the effects of these conditions, explores potential causes, and describes treatments implemented, along with their outcomes.

Overview of Hydropsical Conditions

  • The study deals with unusual conditions in horses where the pregnant uterus experiences severe enlargement, also known as hydropsical conditions. These conditions are major emergencies because they can manifest through severe clinical signs and lead to the development of abdominal wall disease.
  • The origins of these conditions are not entirely known, though links have been made with placentitis, which is an inflammation of the placenta, and fetal abnormalities.

Cases and Treatments Applied

  • The study discusses six cases of such conditions in mares with or without concurrent abdominal wall disease.
  • Five out of the six cases were hydrallantois, a condition in which fluid abundantly accumulates in the placenta, and of these, two had abdominal wall disease. The remaining case exhibited hydramnios, or excessive amniotic fluid.
  • All the mares were treated by terminating the pregnancy through gradual fluid drainage transcervically over several hours, and their fetuses were delivered vaginally. The fetuses were euthanized immediately post-delivery.

Results and Observations

  • Two mares displayed signs of placentitis, two tested positive for leptospirosis (a bacterial disease that can affect animals), and two were euthanized—one due to a vaginal tear that connected to the peritoneum and another that developed an abdominal wall rupture and laminitis, an inflammation within the tissues of the horse’s hoof.
  • Out of the remaining four, three were not rebred and one became an embryo donor with successful embryo recovery.
  • The study revealed the prevalence of leptospira involvement in two out of six cases of hydrallantois.
  • Furthermore, the outcomes of the mares after undergoing slow fetal fluid drainage treatment were also described.

Cite This Article

APA
Diel de Amorim M, Chenier TS, Card C, Back B, McClure JT, Hanna P. (2018). Treatment of Hydropsical Conditions Using Transcervical Gradual Fetal Fluid Drainage in Mares With or Without Concurrent Abdominal Wall Disease. J Equine Vet Sci, 64, 81-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2018.02.021

Publication

ISSN: 0737-0806
NlmUniqueID: 8216840
Country: United States
Language: English
Volume: 64
Pages: 81-88
PII: S0737-0806(18)30003-0

Researcher Affiliations

Diel de Amorim, Mariana
  • Department of Health Management, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada. Electronic address: md649@cornell.edu.
Chenier, Tracey S
  • Departments of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.
Card, Claire
  • Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
Back, Bradley
  • Department of Health Management, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada.
McClure, J Trenton
  • Department of Health Management, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada.
Hanna, Paul
  • Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada.

Citations

This article has been cited 1 times.
  1. Mitchell ARM, Delvescovo B, Tse M, Crouch EE, Cheong SH, Castillo JM, Felippe MJB, Ainsworth DM, de Amorim MD. Successful management of hydrallantois in a Standardbred mare at term resulting in the birth of a live foal.. Can Vet J 2019 May;60(5):495-501.
    pubmed: 31080262