Topic:Euthanasia

COVID-19 effects on horses in-transition: A survey analysis of United States equine industry perspectives.
Journal of equine veterinary science    April 29, 2024   105077 doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2024.105077
Esterl-Byrne LL, Huseman CJ, Haynes C, Kinman LA, Jones TN.The welfare of unwanted horses presents a significant concern for the equine industry. However, there is a lack of research on how unwanted horses are affected by major crises. The drastic changes that resulted from the COVID-19 pandemic presented ample opportunity to investigate how unwanted horses are impacted by challenging circumstances. Study objectives were to evaluate the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on the unwanted horse population and determine the current perceptions of horses in-transition. A 23-question online survey designed using Qualtrics was administered electronically to adults ...
Clinicopathological and pedigree investigation of a novel spinocerebellar neurological disease in juvenile Quarter Horses in North America.
Journal of veterinary internal medicine    April 26, 2024   doi: 10.1111/jvim.17049
Willis AT, Dahlgren AR, Woolard KD, Ghosh S, Donnelly CG, de la Concha-Bermejillo A, Pacheco A, Watson KD, Berryhill E, Aleman M, Wensley F....In 2020, a novel neurologic disease was observed in juvenile Quarter Horses (QHs) in North America. It was unknown if this was an aberrant manifestation of another previously described neurological disorder in foals, such as equine neuroaxonal dystrophy/equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (eNAD/EDM). Objective: To describe the clinical findings, outcomes, and postmortem changes with Equine Juvenile Spinocerebellar Ataxia (EJSCA), differentiate the disease from other similar neurological disorders, and determine a mode of inheritance. Methods: Twelve neurologically affected QH foals and the...
Practitioner Experiences of the Death of an Equine in an Equine-Assisted Services Program.
Omega    April 23, 2024   302228241249200 doi: 10.1177/00302228241249200
Nieforth LO, Kaufman S.Given the nature of horse-human interactions in equine-assisted services (EAS), death of a horse may have significant impacts. In this study, an online survey was distributed to EAS practitioners. The goal of the study was to explore the experiences of practitioners and identify the socioemotional processes that occur upon the death of an equine within an EAS program. Open-ended responses ( = 84) were analyzed qualitatively using a grounded theory and constant-comparative approach. Responses are situated into two themes (1) Processing the death of an equine and (2) Practical implications. Expe...
Mycobacterium genavense granulomatous typhlocolitis in a horse. Kramer AJ, Meziara Wilson T, Kimura S, Groover E, DeLeon-Carnes M, Neto RLALT.A 23-y-old gelding was presented to a veterinary teaching hospital with a history of chronic, refractory diarrhea. Clinically, the horse was in poor body condition, with a thickened and corrugated large intestine identified by transcutaneous abdominal ultrasonography. At postmortem examination following euthanasia, the large colon and cecum had segmental thickening of the intestinal wall with innumerable mucosal ulcers and prominent polypoid mucosal masses. Many mesenteric and hepatic lymph nodes were enlarged. Histology revealed granulomatous and ulcerative typhlocolitis and granulomatous lym...
Intrahepatic mucinous cholangiocarcinoma with recurrent colic in a horse: case report and literature review of cholangiocarcinoma in horses. Barrantes Murillo DF, Cattley RC, Cullen JM, Withers C, Towns J, Pfeifle R, Wooldridge A, Neto RLALT.A 17-y-old Arabian mare was presented to the Auburn Large Animal Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a long-term history of intermittent mild recurrent colic that responded to medical treatment. CBC revealed mild lymphopenia; serum biochemistry findings were of increased gamma-glutamyl transferase and creatine kinase activities, hyperferremia, hyperglycemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypokalemia. Abdominocentesis was compatible with low-protein transudate. Due to the progression and duration of clinical signs, the owner elected euthanasia. Postmortem examination and histopathology confirmed a cholangi...
Gross, organoleptic and histologic assessment of cadaveric equine heads preserved using chemical methods for veterinary surgical teaching.
Journal of veterinary science    April 3, 2024   Volume 25, Issue 2 e29 doi: 10.4142/jvs.23176
Romero Corru00eaa R, Peres Mendes R, Darley Velasquez Piu00f1eros D, De Lima AE, do Valle De Zoppa AL, Lopes Correia da Silva LC....Preservation of biological tissues has been used since ancient times. Regardless of the method employed, tissue preservation is thought to be a vital step in veterinary surgery teaching and learning. Objective: This study was designed to determine the usability of chemically preserved cadaveric equine heads for surgical teaching in veterinary medicine. Methods: Six cadaveric equine heads were collected immediately after death or euthanasia and frozen until fixation. Fixation was achieved by using a hypertonic solution consisting of sodium chloride, sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, and an alc...
Development of an atrial transseptal puncture procedure in horses to access the left heart: An ultrasound-guided jugular vein and transhepatic approach.
Equine veterinary journal    March 24, 2024   doi: 10.1111/evj.14084
Vernemmen I, Van Steenkiste G, Buschmann E, Cornelis K, Schauvliege S, Ibrahim L, Decloedt A, van Loon G.Radiofrequency ablation has been successfully applied to treat right atrial arrhythmias in horses. Ablation of left-sided arrhythmias requires a retrograde transarterial approach which is complicated. In human medicine, the left atrium is accessed through transseptal puncture (TSP) of the fossa ovalis (FO) using a caudal approach via the femoral vein. Objective: To develop a zero fluoroscopy TSP technique for horses using a jugular vein (cranial) and transhepatic (caudal) approach. Methods: In vivo experimental study. Methods: Transseptal puncture was performed in 18 horses admitted for euthan...
A Retrospective Study on the Status of Working Equids Admitted to an Equine Clinic in Cairo: Disease Prevalence and Associations between Physical Parameters and Outcome.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    March 6, 2024   Volume 14, Issue 5 817 doi: 10.3390/ani14050817
Benedetti B, Freccero F, Barton J, Elmallah F, Refat S, Padalino B.Working equids are often used to exhaustion, living and dying in conditions below minimal welfare standards. Due to their poor welfare status, euthanasia should be considered in certain conditions. The study aimed to describe the population and the disease frequency of the working equids admitted at an equine clinic in Cairo (i.e., Egypt Equine Aid (EEA)) from 2019 to 2022 and identify possible associations between physical parameters at admission and the outcome. Records of 1360 equids admitted at EEA were reviewed. The majority of the admitted equids were horses (65.6%), followed by donkeys ...
Evidence for dopamine production and distribution of dopamine D2 receptors in the equine gastrointestinal mucosa and pancreas.
PloS one    February 27, 2024   Volume 19, Issue 2 e0298660 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0298660
Galinelli NC, Bamford NJ, de Laat MA, Sillence MN, Harris PA, Bailey SR.Insulin dysregulation in horses is characterised by hyperinsulinaemia and/or tissue insulin resistance and is associated with increased risk of laminitis. There is growing evidence in other species that dopamine attenuates insulin release from the pancreas; however, this has yet to be examined in horses. The present study aimed to identify whether there are cells capable of producing or responding to dopamine within the equine gastrointestinal mucosa and pancreas. Tissue samples were collected from the stomach, small and large intestines, and pancreas of six mature horses following euthanasia....
A transmandibular lateral transsphenoidal navigated surgical approach to access a pituitary macroadenoma in a warmblood mare.
The veterinary quarterly    February 23, 2024   Volume 44, Issue 1 1-10 doi: 10.1080/01652176.2023.2300947
de Preux M, Precht C, Guevar J, Graubner C, Thenhaus-Schnabel S, Buser L, Lukes A, Koch C.A 16-year-old warmblood mare was referred with a progressive history of behavioral changes and left-sided blindness. Following neuroanatomical localization to the forebrain, magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed a well-delineated, 4.5 cm in diameter, round pituitary mass causing marked compression of the midbrain and optic chiasm. Euthanasia was recommended but declined by the owners. Veterinary specialists and a human neurosurgeon collaboratively prepared for surgical case management. A novel navigated transmandibular lateral transsphenoidal approach was developed to access the re...
Cultivation of Schwann cells from fresh and non-fresh adult equine peripheral nerves.
Journal of neuroscience methods    January 3, 2024   110054 doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2023.110054
Kvigstad EF, u00d8verland IK, Skedsmo FS, Ju00e4derlund KH, Gru00f6ndahl G, Hanche-Olsen S, Gunnes G.Over the past 25 years, acquired equine polyneuropathy (AEP) has emerged as a neurological disease in Scandinavian horses. This condition is characterized by histopathological features including the presence of Schwann cell (SC) inclusions. Cultivated equine SCs would serve as a valuable resource for investigations of factors triggering this Schwannopathy. Ideally, cells should be sampled for cultivation from fresh nerves immediately after death of the animal, however the availability of fresh material is limited, due to the inconsistent case load and the inherent technical and practical chall...
A Functional Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Upstream of the Collagen Type III Gene Is Associated with Catastrophic Fracture Risk in Thoroughbred Horses.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    December 28, 2023   Volume 14, Issue 1 116 doi: 10.3390/ani14010116
Palomino Lago E, Baird A, Blott SC, McPhail RE, Ross AC, Durward-Akhurst SA, Guest DJ.Fractures caused by bone overloading are a leading cause of euthanasia in Thoroughbred racehorses. The risk of fatal fracture has been shown to be influenced by both environmental and genetic factors but, to date, no specific genetic mechanisms underpinning fractures have been identified. In this study, we utilised a genome-wide polygenic risk score to establish an in vitro cell system to study bone gene regulation in horses at high and low genetic risk of fracture. Candidate gene expression analysis revealed differential expression of and genes in osteoblasts derived from high- and low-risk...
Lumbar vertebral bone density is decreased in horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction.
Equine veterinary journal    December 27, 2023   doi: 10.1111/evj.14039
Colbath AC, Fortin JS, Burglass CM, Panek C, Vergara-Hernandez FB, Johnson TN, Robison CA, Logan AA, Nelson NA, Nielsen BD, Schott HC.Pathological fractures have been reported in equids with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) but their prevalence and pathogenesis is unknown. Objective: To compare: (1) bone mineral density (BMD) in weight bearing and nonweight bearing bones in PPID equids and aged and young PPID controls; and (2) biomechanical properties of the fourth lumbar vertebral body in PPID equids and aged PPID equids. Methods: Case-control study: five PPID equids and six aged and four young PPID control horses. Methods: PPID status was based on clinical signs and necropsy examination of the pituitary gland (...
Integrin α10β1-Selected Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reduce Pain and Cartilage Degradation and Increase Immunomodulation in an Equine Osteoarthritis Model.
Cartilage    November 21, 2023   19476035231209402 doi: 10.1177/19476035231209402
Andersen C, Jacobsen S, Uvebrant K, Griffin JF, Vonk LA, Walters M, Berg LC, Lundgren-u00c5kerlund E, Lindegaard C.Integrin α10β1-selected mesenchymal stem cells (integrin α10-MSCs) have previously shown potential in treating cartilage damage and osteoarthritis (OA) and in animal models . The aim of this study was to further investigate disease-modifying effects of integrin α10-MSCs. Methods: OA was surgically induced in 17 horses. Eighteen days after surgery, horses received 2 × 10 integrin α10-MSCs intra-articularly or were left untreated. Lameness and response to carpal flexion was assessed weekly along with synovial fluid (SF) analysis. On day 52 after treatment, horses were euthanized, and carp...
Prospective case study of critical decision making for horses referred for treatment of colic.
The Veterinary record    November 21, 2023   e3615 doi: 10.1002/vetr.3615
Burrell K, Sutton-Walker G, England GCW, Burford JH, Freeman SL.There is limited evidence on factors affecting critical decision making for horses with colic. This study's aim was to describe the assessment and decision making involved in horses referred for management of colic. Methods: An in-depth case analysis was used to document case presentation, decision making and outcomes for horses referred for colic to two UK equine veterinary practices over a 12-month period. The data recorded included previous history, presenting signs, response to treatment, case outcome and factors affecting decisions for further treatment or euthanasia. Results: Data were a...
Characterization of gastrointestinal inflammatory cell type in equine glandular gastric disease.
American journal of veterinary research    October 11, 2023   Volume 84, Issue 12 ajvr.23.06.0129 doi: 10.2460/ajvr.23.06.0129
Banse HE, Piero FD, Andrews FM, Garcia-Abarca N, Watanabe TTN.To compare small intestinal inflammation with gastric inflammation in horses with and without equine gastric glandular disease (EGGD), we evaluated endoscopic, macroscopic, and microscopic findings of the glandular stomach and microscopic findings of the small intestine. Methods: 36 horses. Methods: Horses underwent endoscopy and were scored for EGGD. After euthanasia, stomachs were collected and macroscopically evaluated. Normal pyloric mucosa, glandular lesions, and small intestinal (duodenum, mid-jejunum, and ileum) samples were collected and processed for microscopic examination. Cellular ...
Perivascular wall tumour presenting as pastern mass in a Standardbred gelding.
Australian veterinary journal    August 13, 2023   doi: 10.1111/avj.13280
Stutsel M, Gimeno M, Young A, Bell JW, Horadagoda N.A 2-year-old Standardbred gelding was referred for a mass on the palmaromedial right front pastern which was accompanied by progressively worsening lameness. The mass was firm to palpation and covered by normal skin. Ultrasonographically, a smooth encapsulated mass was present, medial to the flexor tendons and palmar to the neurovascular bundle. Because of a poor prognosis for future athletic performance without surgical or chemotherapeutic intervention and economic constraints preventing further diagnostics and treatment, the horse was euthanised. Post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging, histo...
Equine Gunshot Euthanasia: Creation of a 3D-Printed Model with Integrated Sensors for Training.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    August 9, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 16 2566 doi: 10.3390/ani13162566
Dybdal N, Horgan M, Costa L, Davis E, Lucero S, Nieves S, Quiroz V, Weberg K, Madigan JE.Challenges and issues related to the use of pentobarbital euthanasia and disposal of animal remains within the US have recently been reviewed. Environmental and public health challenges increasingly necessitate consideration of alternative methods such as gunshots, an American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) "acceptable with conditions" method, for the humane euthanasia of horses. A recent study reported a correctly aimed gunshot provides a humane option for euthanizing horses. However, although aiming guidelines exist, studies examining bullet trajectories in animals euthanized by gunsh...
Gestation length is associated with early-life limb deformities in Thoroughbred foals.
Journal of equine veterinary science    August 2, 2023   doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2023.104896
Mouncey R, Arango-Sabogal JC, de Mestre AM, Verheyen KL.Flexural and angular limb deformities (LD) are an important cause of early-life morbidity and mortality/euthanasia in Thoroughbred foals. The majority are congenital in origin but, to date, their precise aetiology is poorly understood. We hypothesised that maternal- and pregnancy-level factors, particularly those with potential to influence in-utero growth and development, could play an important role. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate associations between such factors and early-life LD in Thoroughbred foals. A birth cohort was established on seven farms across the United King...
Preputial lymphangioma in a stallion: First report.
Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene    June 13, 2023   Volume 58, Issue 8 1161-1163 doi: 10.1111/rda.14402
Gomes JE, Canadas-Sousa A, Guimaru00e3es T, Cunha R, Dias-Pereira P.This short communication describes a case of a 30-year-old stallion with a mass on the base of the penis causing paraphimosis. The patient was submitted to anti-inflammatory and diuretic therapy with no signs of improvement, so 16 days after the lesion was detected, the animal was euthanized. Necropsy was performed, and histopathological assessment of the lesion was conducted. The mass was composed primarily of channels and cavernous structures, lined by elongated cells of vascular origin, located in the preputium. The lesion was diagnosed as a preputial lymphangioma. To the authors' best kn...
Gastrojejunostomy as a treatment for gastric outflow disorders in four adult horses.
Australian veterinary journal    May 30, 2023   Volume 101, Issue 8 302-307 doi: 10.1111/avj.13249
Brabon A, Labens R, Ramachandran A, Dart AJ, Dowling BA.Four adult horses with histories of moderate abdominal pain and inappetence were diagnosed with delayed gastric emptying and gastric impaction attributed to pyloroduodenal obstruction (three cases) or duodenitis (one case). A stapled side-to-side gastrojejunostomy was performed on all horses. Two horses returned to work and survived ≥3 years. One horse was euthanased 6 months post-surgery due to recurrent abdominal pain, and one was found dead 5 months postsurgery after an unattended foaling.
Ingesta-associated choledocholithiasis in horses: 2 cases and literature review. Linn-Peirano SC, Hepworth-Warren K, Kinsella H, Diaz-Campos D, Brenseke BM, Cianciolo RE, Schroeder E, Schreeg ME.Equine ingesta-associated choledocholithiasis is a rare cause of morbidity and mortality. We describe here the clinical, gross, histologic, and microbiologic features of this condition in 2 horses and compare the features to 2 previous cases. Case 1 was a 4-y-old Thoroughbred mare with colic. Case 2 was an 18-y-old American Paint Horse mare with colic, chronic weight loss, and inappropriate mentation. Both had elevated biochemical markers of hepatocellular injury and cholestasis and were euthanized given a poor prognosis. Case 1 had a well-formed 5-cm choledocholith surrounding a piece of hay,...
Chronic Progressive Lymphedema in Belgian Draft Horses: Understanding and Managing a Challenging Disease.
Veterinary sciences    May 12, 2023   Volume 10, Issue 5 347 doi: 10.3390/vetsci10050347
Brys M, Claerebout E, Chiers K.Chronic progressive lymphedema (CPL) in draft horses is characterized by increased dermal thickness and fibrosis, with the development of skinfolds and nodules, hyperkeratosis, and ulcerations on the distal limbs of affected horses. Secondary bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infections frequently complicate and aggravate the lesions, as well as the progression of this disease. CPL has a particularly high prevalence of up to 85.86% in the Belgian draft horse breed. Due to the disease's progressive and incurable nature, affected horses are often euthanized prematurely. The treatment options are s...
Subarachnoid hemorrhage and axonal degeneration after C1-C2 cervical centesis in 2 horses.
Journal of veterinary internal medicine    April 25, 2023   Volume 37, Issue 3 1256-1261 doi: 10.1111/jvim.16716
Luethy D, Colmer S, Jodzio D, Bender S, Porter E, Hemmen Z, Fultz L, Craft W, Walker R, Johnson A, Holbrook T.Ultrasound-guided cervical centesis has gained popularity as a method for collecting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from standing horses. There are anecdotal reports of neck stiffness, regional swelling, sensitivity to palpation, and fever after the procedure. We report 2 horses with complications that occurred within days of C1-C2 centesis and ultimately resulted in euthanasia. Both C1-C2 centesis were performed routinely, with CSF cytologic analysis providing no evidence of blood contamination. Post-mortem examination revealed equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy as the primary disorder causin...
GLAD Scale for Ranking Welfare of Horses on Arrival after Transport to Slaughterhouses.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    April 25, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 9 1465 doi: 10.3390/ani13091465
Padalino B, Benedetti B, Felici M, Bicout DJ.To date, there is no official method for measuring horse welfare after transport. This study aimed to develop a scale to classify horses into four categories: good shape; light affected; affected; down (GLAD) based on their welfare impairment measured at unloading. To this end, 15 animal-based measures (ABMs), previously recorded from 1019 horses, were scored. Weight and severity scores provided by welfare experts, alongside the number of welfare principles highlighted by the ABM, were assigned to each ABM. The welfare impairment () of each horse was then calculated as the weighted sum of the ...
Effect of pentobarbital as a euthanasia agent on equine in vitro embryo production.
Theriogenology    April 5, 2023   Volume 205 1-8 doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2023.04.002
Martin-Pelaez S, Rabow Z, de la Fuente A, Draheim P, Loynachan A, Fiehn O, Meyers S, Lyman C, Dini P.Postmortem and pre-euthanasia oocyte retrieval provides the last opportunity to preserve the genetic material in mares. Pentobarbital (PB) is the most common euthanasia agent; however, its effect on the developmental competence of oocytes has not been determined. Here, we evaluated the concentration of PB in equine follicular fluid (FF) and investigated its effect on the developmental competence of oocytes using a bovine IVF model to overcome the low availability of equine oocytes. The concentration of PB was measured by gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry in FF collected from mare ovaries im...
Intrathecal mepivacaine after general anesthesia is an effective method of equine euthanasia when compared to intravenous pentobarbital.
American journal of veterinary research    March 19, 2023   Volume 84, Issue 5 doi: 10.2460/ajvr.22.11.0201
Alexander K, Simon E, Mama K, Rao S, Bass L.This study aims to assess intrathecal mepivacaine for euthanasia in anesthetized horses and compare it to a traditional euthanasia method using a single intravenous injection of pentobarbital in sedated horses. Methods: Client-owned horses and horses requiring euthanasia due to involvement in concurrent research projects were used. Horses were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: intrathecal mepivacaine after anesthesia or intravenous pentobarbital after sedation. All horses had normal vital parameters and no signs of infectious disease at the time of euthanasia. Methods: The intrathecal mepiva...
Onchocerca sp. in an imported Zangersheide gelding causing suspensory ligament desmitis.
Journal of veterinary internal medicine    February 23, 2023   Volume 37, Issue 2 735-739 doi: 10.1111/jvim.16653
Brown KA, Johnson AL, Bender SJ, Nolan TJ, Pfisterer B, Slack J, Willis E, Rule EK.A 5-year-old imported Zangersheide gelding was evaluated for SC swellings over both forelimbs and lameness localized to the distal metacarpus. Ultrasound examination of the SC masses was compatible with verminous granulomas. Linear hyperechoic foci were present within the suspensory ligament branches of both forelimbs, suggestive of ligamentous parasitic infiltrates. A diagnosis of onchocerciasis was confirmed on biopsy of a SC mass. The gelding was treated with ivermectin and a tapering course of PO dexamethasone but was eventually euthanized. Necropsy confirmed the presence of SC eosinophili...
Case report: Halicephalobus gingivalis in a Tennessee pony.
Veterinary parasitology, regional studies and reports    February 13, 2023   Volume 39 100843 doi: 10.1016/j.vprsr.2023.100843
Baker E, Geick A, Hines M, Gerhold R, Cordero-Aponte C.A 17-year-old female grade pony presented to University of Tennessee Veterinary Medical Center in May of 2021 for evaluation of multifocal, firm, sessile, circular lesions of various diameters on the ventrum and flank. The lesions had been present for two weeks at presentation. An excisional biopsy found numerous adult and larval rhabditid nematodes most consistent with Halicephalobus gingivalis. PCR targeting a portion of the large ribosomal subunit confirmed this diagnosis. The patient was treated with a high dose course of ivermectin followed by fenbendazole. The patient began showing neuro...
Multisystemic eosinophilic epitheliotropic disease in three donkeys.
Journal of comparative pathology    February 13, 2023   Volume 201 105-108 doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2023.01.005
Paraschou G, Vogel PE, Lee AM, Trawford RF, Priestnall SL.Multisystemic eosinophilic epitheliotropic disease (MEED) is a rare condition of equids characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of multiple organs. Clinical signs are variable depending on the affected organs. The most common clinical signs include chronic weight loss, diarrhoea and exfoliative dermatitis. Respiratory distress and raised liver enzymes are less frequently seen. The cause is unknown and the pathogenesis is poorly understood. There are less than 50 reported cases of horses with MEED. We now document the lesions in three donkeys with fluctuating or chronic loss of weight, letha...
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