Topic:Post Mortem

[Ocular and non-ocular squamous cell carcinomas in the Haflinger: Eight cases at the Institut Suisse de Médecine Equine (2015-2022)].
Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde    October 12, 2023   Volume 165, Issue 10 644-655 doi: 10.17236/sat00406
Schu00e4fer J, Graubner C, Gerber V, Dru00f6gemu00fcller C, Underberg J, Gurtner C, Unger L.This case series describes the clinical course of ocular and non-ocular squamous cell carinoma (SCC) in the Haflinger horse and is intended to raise awareness of the high recurrence rate and tendency to metastasize. Eight Haflingers with histologically confirmed SCC were included, five ocular and three non-ocular, who were presented at the Institut Suisse de Médecine Équine (ISME) Bern between July 2015 and January 2022. The ocular SCC cases were all presented because of an apparent mass, which in most cases was post-treatment recurrence. The occurrence of recurrences was observed between 3 ...
Distribution of degenerative changes in the equine endometrium as observed in a single versus two biopsies.
Theriogenology    September 25, 2023   Volume 213 52-58 doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2023.09.018
Muderspach ND, Troedsson MHT, Ferreira-Dias G, Agerholm JS, Christoffersen M.Equine endometrial degeneration is diagnosed by microscopy of an endometrial biopsy but it is uncertain if findings in a single biopsy represent the state of the entire endometrium. Previous studies have compared samples from multiple sites but conclusions are inconsistent. Further clarification is therefore needed. In this study, presence and characteristics of endometrial degeneration were compared in two full thickness specimens from the ventral base of both uterine horns, obtained post mortem from cyclic mares (n = 82). Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections were blinded evaluated for pe...
Retroperitoneoscopy of the presacral space in horses: Surgical access and anatomy.
Equine veterinary journal    September 1, 2023   doi: 10.1111/evj.13994
Meurice A, Pujol R, De Fourmestraux C, Coquillon M, Tessier C.Surgical approaches to the equine rectum and perirectal area are described in the literature. However, surgeries in this region can be challenging. Objective: To describe the surgical anatomy of the presacral space and to evaluate its access using a retroperitoneoscopic approach. Methods: Ex vivo experiment. Methods: Preliminary dissections were performed in two cadavers to define the boundaries of the presacral space and to determine portal locations for the surgical approach. After that, nine cadavers were used for experimental presacral retroperitoneoscopic procedure in a standing position....
Pleural Empyema in Six Horses: A Retrospective Case Series.
Journal of equine veterinary science    August 27, 2023   104912 doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2023.104912
Battistin L, Cerri FM, Watanabe MJ, Takahira RK, Ribeiro MG, Rocha NS, de Oliveira-Filho JP, Borges AS, Amorim RM.The clinical findings of pleural empyema in six horses were retrospectively studied using epidemiological, clinical pathology, microbiological, ultrasound and poat mortem data. The clinical findings included tachycardia (n=3/6), tachypnea (n=6/6), cyanotic mucosa (n=2/6), hyperthermia (n=4/6), inspiratory or mixed dyspnea (n=6/6), presence of fluid and/or pleural rubbing (n=2/6) and coarse crackling on auscultation (n=4/6). Horses demonstrated leukocytosis (16.22 × 103/µL) with neutrophilia (12.32 × 103/µL) and hyperfibrinogenemia (633.33 mg/dL) and an increase in urea (69.80 mg/kg...
Perivascular wall tumour presenting as pastern mass in a Standardbred gelding.
Australian veterinary journal    August 13, 2023   doi: 10.1111/avj.13280
Stutsel M, Gimeno M, Young A, Bell JW, Horadagoda N.A 2-year-old Standardbred gelding was referred for a mass on the palmaromedial right front pastern which was accompanied by progressively worsening lameness. The mass was firm to palpation and covered by normal skin. Ultrasonographically, a smooth encapsulated mass was present, medial to the flexor tendons and palmar to the neurovascular bundle. Because of a poor prognosis for future athletic performance without surgical or chemotherapeutic intervention and economic constraints preventing further diagnostics and treatment, the horse was euthanised. Post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging, histo...
Evaluation of real-time polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses using cerebrospinal fluid.
Journal of veterinary internal medicine    August 7, 2023   Volume 37, Issue 5 1893-1898 doi: 10.1111/jvim.16826
Enriquez CK, Morrow JK, Graves A, Johnson A.Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) caused by Sarcocystis neurona remains an antemortem diagnostic challenge in some horses. Recent work suggested the use of real-time PCR (rtPCR) on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a promising diagnostic tool. Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of S. neurona rtPCR on CSF for EPM diagnosis using horses with EPM and S. neurona-seropositive horses with other neurologic conditions. Methods: Ninety-nine horses with neurologic disease that underwent complete neurologic examination, CSF collection, and, if euthanized, necropsy including the cent...
Antimicrobial prophylaxis is not indicated for horses undergoing general anaesthesia for elective orthopaedic MRI.
Equine veterinary journal    August 2, 2023   doi: 10.1111/evj.13978
Hoblick S, Denagamage TN, Morton AJ, McCarrel TM.Post-anaesthetic fever is a known complication of general anaesthesia, however, its incidence in horses undergoing elective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is unknown. Objective: To determine the incidence of post-anaesthetic fever in horses undergoing elective orthopaedic MRI and determine whether prophylactic antimicrobial therapy would be associated with a reduction in the incidence of post-anaesthetic fever. We hypothesised that prophylactic antimicrobials would be associated with a reduction in the incidence of post-anaesthetic fever.
Pyelonephritic end-stage kidney and ureterocutaneous fistula in a Shetland pony. Schinku00f6the J, Gerlach K, Ulrich RG, Brehm W.A 12-y-old Shetland Pony was presented with a mucus-secreting fistula in the right paralumbar fossa. Surgery was performed to unravel the origin of the fistula. The horse died under anesthesia and was forwarded to autopsy. The right kidney was markedly atrophic and fibrotic, consistent with unilateral end-stage kidney. The right ureter was markedly thickened, but with luminal continuity leading into the urinary bladder where a partial obstruction caused by nodular para-ureteral fat necrosis was evident. The lumen of the cutaneous fistula was continuous with the right ureter; therefore, we diag...
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with heterotopic ossification, lymphovascular invasion, and nodal and pulmonary metastases in a 23-year-old Morgan gelding.
The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne    July 3, 2023   Volume 64, Issue 7 627-632 
Townsend KS, Johnson PJ, Kuroki K.Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck occurs in the skin or squamous epithelial lining tissues of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and sinonasal tract. Although it is a common tumor in horses, distant metastatic spread to the lung is rare. This report describes a case of metastatic pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma in a 23-year-old Morgan gelding. The clinical signs displayed by this gelding in some ways mimicked the typical presentation of equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis or thoracic lymphoma. The postmortem diagnosis in this case was head and neck squamous cell carcinom...
Pericardiotomy by Transdiaphragmatic Thoracoscopy Singleport in Horses.
Journal of equine veterinary science    June 8, 2023   Volume 127 104846 doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2023.104846
Lorga AD, Gomes ARC, Strugava L, Moreno JCD, Dornbusch PT.Thoracoscopy pericardiotomy consists of endoscopic access to the thoracic cavity to perform the opening of the pericardial sac, described in the equine species only through the intercostal access, and there are no studies addressing the singleport transdiaphragmatic access, so the objective was to develop the pericardiotomy technique by transdiaphragmatic thoracoscopy using a single port. The technique was performed using six cadavers of adult horses, positioned in dorsal decubitus, making it possible to initiate access with an incision in the region proximal to the xiphoid process, for the in...
Prevalence of Latent Equid Herpesvirus Type 1 in Submandibular Lymph Nodes of Horses in Virginia.
Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland)    June 7, 2023   Volume 12, Issue 6 813 doi: 10.3390/pathogens12060813
Saklou N, Pleasant S, Lahmers K, Funk R.Equine Herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) typically causes mild respiratory disease, but it can also cause late-term abortion, neonatal foal death and neurologic disease. Once a horse is infected, the virus concentrates to local lymphoid tissue, where it becomes latent. The virus can be reactivated during times of stress, which can lead to the initiation of devastating outbreaks. Understanding the carriage rate of latent EHV-1 in different geographic regions is essential for managing the disease. The objective of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of latent EHV-1 and compare the frequenc...
Intestinal hemangiomas in 8 horses.
Veterinary pathology    June 2, 2023   3009858231176560 doi: 10.1177/03009858231176560
Metcalfe A, Craig LE.This retrospective study describes 8 cases of intestinal hemangioma diagnosed in horses during postmortem examination or surgical biopsy at the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine. In all cases, the intestine was the sole organ affected, and lesions were focal (3/8) or multifocal (5/8). Nodules were most commonly within the small intestine (7/8), particularly the jejunum (5/7). One case was in the left dorsal colon, which is the first report of hemangioma in the large colon of a horse. Lesions were discrete, raised, smooth, black to red, and ranged from 2 to 15 mm in diamete...
Postmortem examination of equids >1-year-old with enterotyphlocolitis in Ontario: a retrospective descriptive study. Zakia LS, Arroyo LG, Gomez DE, Boerlin P, Surette MG, Lillie BN.Equine enterotyphlocolitis is an inflammatory process of the intestinal tract of horses that is associated with multiple etiologic agents and risk factors. Most clinical cases do not have an etiologic diagnosis. We describe here the pathogens detected and the histologic lesions found in horses with enterotyphlocolitis in Ontario that were submitted for postmortem examination, 2007-2019. We reviewed the medical records of 208 horses that fulfilled inclusion criteria. Cultures were positive in 67 of 208 (32%) equids for , in 16 of 208 (8%) for , and in 14 of 208 (7%) for spp.; 6 of 208 (3%) wer...
Subarachnoid hemorrhage and axonal degeneration after C1-C2 cervical centesis in 2 horses.
Journal of veterinary internal medicine    April 25, 2023   Volume 37, Issue 3 1256-1261 doi: 10.1111/jvim.16716
Luethy D, Colmer S, Jodzio D, Bender S, Porter E, Hemmen Z, Fultz L, Craft W, Walker R, Johnson A, Holbrook T.Ultrasound-guided cervical centesis has gained popularity as a method for collecting cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from standing horses. There are anecdotal reports of neck stiffness, regional swelling, sensitivity to palpation, and fever after the procedure. We report 2 horses with complications that occurred within days of C1-C2 centesis and ultimately resulted in euthanasia. Both C1-C2 centesis were performed routinely, with CSF cytologic analysis providing no evidence of blood contamination. Post-mortem examination revealed equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy as the primary disorder causin...
A case of chronic schistosomiasis in a Dongola stallion (Equus ferus caballus Linnaeus, 1758) from Nigeria.
Journal of parasitic diseases : official organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology    April 8, 2023   Volume 47, Issue 2 442-450 doi: 10.1007/s12639-023-01581-y
Abalaka SE, Audu Z, Kolawole VO, Adeyemo BT, Idoko IS, Okafor ROS, Oyelowo-Abdulraheem FO, Tags SZ, Ogbe AO, Sanni S, Jegede OC, Sani NA, Tenuche OZ....Schistosomiasis is a worldwide snail-borne parasitic infestation of man and animals with acute or chronic phases having devastating sequelae. The present case report focused on post-mortem examination of a cachexic Dongola stallion ( Linnaeus, 1758) in Abuja, Nigeria, that failed to respond to treatment. Typical dense collagenous granulomatous lesions with marked inflammatory responses and fibrosis occurred in the liver and several visceral organs of the horse along with other lesions indicative of systemic collapse. Special Ziehl-Neelsen and Periodic Acid-Schiff staining as well as microbial ...
Effect of pentobarbital as a euthanasia agent on equine in vitro embryo production.
Theriogenology    April 5, 2023   Volume 205 1-8 doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2023.04.002
Martin-Pelaez S, Rabow Z, de la Fuente A, Draheim P, Loynachan A, Fiehn O, Meyers S, Lyman C, Dini P.Postmortem and pre-euthanasia oocyte retrieval provides the last opportunity to preserve the genetic material in mares. Pentobarbital (PB) is the most common euthanasia agent; however, its effect on the developmental competence of oocytes has not been determined. Here, we evaluated the concentration of PB in equine follicular fluid (FF) and investigated its effect on the developmental competence of oocytes using a bovine IVF model to overcome the low availability of equine oocytes. The concentration of PB was measured by gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry in FF collected from mare ovaries im...
Rapport de cas Mononuclear pleocytosis and meningoencephalitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes in an adult horse.
The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne    April 4, 2023   Volume 64, Issue 4 363-366 
Phelps S, Chong D, McKenzie E, Kiupel M, Gorman E.Clinical disease caused by infection with is rare in adult horses, and there is a paucity of ante-mortem clinicopathologic changes for this species reported in the literature. Confirmatory diagnosis is difficult and often requires post-mortem sampling of the brainstem. This report details a case of meningoencephalitis caused by in an adult American quarter horse gelding presenting with central neurologic signs. Pre-mortem analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid revealed a mononuclear, primarily lymphocytic, pleocytosis, which is a reported finding in other species with listeriosis. Post-mortem h...
Shapes of cervical articular process joints and association with histological evidence of osteochondrosis in Warmblood foals: A post-mortem study.
Equine veterinary journal    April 3, 2023   doi: 10.1111/evj.13940
Bergmann W, Vernooij JCM, Grinwis GCM, Gru00f6ne A.Osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) of articular process joints (APJs) is involved in cervical vertebral compressive myelopathy (CVM). Biomechanical forces, important in development of OCD, depend on joint conformation. Oval and flat APJ surfaces are considered normal. Objective: To identify and grade gross shape variation of cervical and cranial thoracic APJ surfaces and determine association with histological evidence of osteochondrosis. Methods: Case series. Methods: Eight hundred and four cervical and cranial thoracic APJ surfaces of 30 foals were evaluated for shape(s) and grades, and were co...
Expression of cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) and cannabinoid-related receptors (TRPV1, GPR55, and PPARα) in the synovial membrane of the horse metacarpophalangeal joint.
Frontiers in veterinary science    March 3, 2023   Volume 10 1045030 doi: 10.3389/fvets.2023.1045030
Zamith Cunha R, Zannoni A, Salamanca G, De Silva M, Rinnovati R, Gramenzi A, Forni M, Chiocchetti R.The metacarpophalangeal joint undergoes enormous loading during locomotion and can therefore often become inflamed, potentially resulting in osteoarthritis (OA). There are studies indicating that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) modulates synovium homeostasis, and could be a promising target for OA therapy. Some cannabinoid receptors, which modulate proliferative and secretory responses in joint inflammation, have been functionally identified in human and animal synovial cells. Unassigned: To characterize the cellular distribution of the cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1R) and 2 (CB2R), and the can...
Post-Mortem Computed Tomographic Features of the Most Caudal Lumbar Vertebrae, Anatomical Variations and Acquired Osseous Pathological Changes, in a Mixed Population of Horses.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    February 19, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 4 743 doi: 10.3390/ani13040743
Scilimati N, Angeli G, Di Meo A, Dall'Aglio C, Pepe M, Beccati F.The radiographic, ultrasonographic, and scintigraphic findings of horses with thoracolumbosacral pain have been previously reported. In this study, the computed tomographic appearance of anatomical variations and pathological changes of the equine caudal lumbar region through a post-mortem examination were investigated. A total of 40 horses that had died or were submitted for euthanasia, for reasons unrelated to the study, were included in the study. From all the specimens, the modified vertebral system was adopted to evaluate and describe the four most caudal lumbar vertebrae, which were numb...
Multisystemic eosinophilic epitheliotropic disease in three donkeys.
Journal of comparative pathology    February 13, 2023   Volume 201 105-108 doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2023.01.005
Paraschou G, Vogel PE, Lee AM, Trawford RF, Priestnall SL.Multisystemic eosinophilic epitheliotropic disease (MEED) is a rare condition of equids characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of multiple organs. Clinical signs are variable depending on the affected organs. The most common clinical signs include chronic weight loss, diarrhoea and exfoliative dermatitis. Respiratory distress and raised liver enzymes are less frequently seen. The cause is unknown and the pathogenesis is poorly understood. There are less than 50 reported cases of horses with MEED. We now document the lesions in three donkeys with fluctuating or chronic loss of weight, letha...
Patterns of variation in equine strongyle community structure across age groups and gut compartments.
Parasites & vectors    February 11, 2023   Volume 16, Issue 1 64 doi: 10.1186/s13071-022-05645-5
Boisseau M, Mach N, Basiaga M, Kuzmina T, Laugier C, Sallu00e9 G.Equine strongyles encompass more than 64 species of nematode worms that are responsible for growth retardation and the death of animals. The factors underpinning variation in the structure of the equine strongyle community remain unknown. Methods: Using horse-based strongyle community data collected after horse deworming (48 horses in Poland, 197 horses in Ukraine), we regressed species richness and the Gini-Simpson index upon the horse's age, faecal egg count, sex and operation of origin. Using the Ukrainian observations, we applied a hierarchical diversity partitioning framework to estimate ...
A Case Report of Uterine Body Constriction Precluding Normal Parturition Leading to Dystocia in a Mare.
Veterinary sciences    February 10, 2023   Volume 10, Issue 2 139 doi: 10.3390/vetsci10020139
Willette J, Gerras A, Sledge D, Koch D.A 13-year-old multiparous Quarter Horse mare was presented to the Michigan State University's, Large Animal Emergency service for dystocia. Clinical evaluation revealed a minimally dilated cervix on vaginal examination, with a palpable deceased fetus. Postmortem evaluation following owner-elected humane euthanasia revealed a circumferential, tan, fibrous band at the base of the uterine body that constricted the uterus and was adhered to the left and right ovaries. A routine histologic section of the incarcerating cord attached to the ovary consisted predominately of dense fibrous connective ti...
Bilateral patellar aplasia in a foal.
Veterinary medicine and science    February 3, 2023   Volume 9, Issue 3 1143-1148 doi: 10.1002/vms3.1083
Ludwig EK, Hallowell K, Womble M, O'Neil E.A 2-day-old Cleveland Bay colt was referred to the Equine Emergency Service of the Farm Animal and Equine Veterinary Medical Center at North Carolina State University's College of Veterinary Medicine for evaluation of decreased nursing behaviour and right hindlimb lameness of 2 days' duration. When assisted to stand, the foal was unable to extend either hindlimb or bear weight on the hindlimbs, the right patella was luxated laterally and unable to be reduced, and the foal assumed a crouched position. Stifle radiographs revealed minimal, heterogeneous, ill-defined ossification of both patellae....
Biliary parascarosis in a foal.
Veterinary medicine and science    February 1, 2023   Volume 9, Issue 3 1149-1153 doi: 10.1002/vms3.1087
Sazmand A, Yavari M, Babaei M, Nourian A, Otranto D.Migration of Ascaris lumbricoides through the papilla of Vater in humans, and entry into the biliary tree, is well-recognised. Ascaris suum and Toxocara vitulorum have been recovered from the liver of swine and buffalo. We necropsied a Persian Kurdish filly at age 6 months, weighing ∼100 kg. Death evidently was caused by oleander (Nerium oleander) intoxication. An 8-cm adult male Parascaris was found at the lobar-left hepatic bile duct junction. We suggest that the nematode entered anteriorly into the hepatic tree, via the duodenum, major duodenal papilla, bile duct, left hepatic duct and f...
Pathological Features and Genomic Characterization of an Actinobacillus equuli subsp. equuli Bearing Unique Virulence-Associated Genes from an Adult Horse with Pleuropneumonia.
Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland)    January 31, 2023   Volume 12, Issue 2 224 doi: 10.3390/pathogens12020224
Kamali M, Carossino M, Del Piero F, Peak L, Mitchell MS, Willette J, Baker R, Li F, Kenu00e9z u00c1, Balasuriya UBR, Go YY. subsp. is the etiological agent of sleepy foal disease, an acute form of fatal septicemia in newborn foals. is commonly found in the mucous membranes of healthy horses' respiratory and alimentary tracts and rarely causes disease in adult horses. In this study, we report a case of a 22-year-old American Paint gelding presenting clinical signs associated with an atypical pattern of pleuropneumonia subjected to necropsy. The gross and histopathological examinations revealed a unilateral fibrinosuppurative and hemorrhagic pleuropneumonia with an infrequent parenchymal distribution and heavy iso...
Percutaneous full endoscopic foraminotomy for treatment of cervical spinal nerve compression in horses using a uniportal approach: Feasibility study.
Equine veterinary journal    January 10, 2023   Volume 55, Issue 5 788-797 doi: 10.1111/evj.13919
Swagemakers JH, Van Daele P, Mageed M.Cervical spinal nerve insult can be a sequel of osteoarthropathy in horses due to enlargement of the articular processes (AP). Objective: To describe the percutaneous endoscopic cervical foraminotomy procedure in horses. Methods: Ex vivo experimental study and clinical case report. Methods: The technique was performed in three equine cadavers and in two clinical cases with history of forelimb lameness located in the caudal cervical region. Briefly, the horse was positioned in lateral recumbency, with the affected AP joint uppermost. Under fluoroscopic guidance, the endoscopic instruments (Ø 6...
Culture of equine intestinal epithelial stem cells after delayed tissue storage for future applications.
BMC veterinary research    December 23, 2022   Volume 18, Issue 1 445 doi: 10.1186/s12917-022-03552-6
Stewart AS, Schaaf CR, Veerasammy B, Freund JM, Gonzalez LM.Equine intestinal epithelial stem cells (ISCs) serve as potential targets to treat horses with severe intestinal injury. The ability to isolate and store ISCs from intestinal biopsies creates an opportunity for both in vitro experiments to study ISC dynamics in a variety of intestinal diseases, and, in the future, utilize these cells as a possible therapy. If biopsies could be successfully stored prior to processing for ISCs, this would increase the availability of sample repositories for future experimental and therapeutic use. However, delayed culture of equine ISCs following prolonged sampl...
Lymphomatosis as a Cause of Abdominal Pain and Distension in Two Adult Horses.
Journal of equine veterinary science    December 9, 2022   Volume 120 104193 doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2022.104193
Perry LR, Butler AJ, John E, Martinson S, Buote M, Foote K, Burton S, Stoughton WB.Two equine patients presented separately with severe abdominal distention, colic, lethargy, and decreased appetite. An ante-mortem diagnosis of lymphoma was reached in each case based on peritoneal fluid cytology. Due to a poor prognosis, the horses were humanely euthanized. Post-mortem examination with histology and immunohistochemistry confirmed both cases as lymphoma: alimentary B-cell lymphoma of the distal jejunum and cecum in one case, and T-cell lymphoma of the cecum in the second case. Both cases exhibited extensive metastasis with peritoneal and pleural serosae covered in small nodule...
Disseminated Halicephalobus gingivalis infection in a horse. Pillai VV, Mudd LJ, Sola MF.A 19-y-old American Saddlebred gelding was evaluated for epiphora of the right eye and generalized cachexia. Initial examination revealed anterior uveitis without ulceration, for which treatment was initiated. Despite the initial response to treatment, the signs progressively worsened to blindness. Histologic examination of the enucleated eye revealed granulomatous panuveitis and optic neuritis with intralesional nematode larvae identified as . Over time and despite anthelmintic treatment, blindness developed in the left eye along with neurologic signs, and the horse was euthanized. Disseminat...
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