Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association2001; 218(5); 740-748; doi: 10.2460/javma.2001.218.740

Factors associated with Salmonella shedding among equine colic patients at a veterinary teaching hospital.

Abstract: To evaluate factors potentially associated with fecal Salmonella shedding among equine patients hospitalized for colic at a veterinary teaching hospital and to determine the effects of probiotic treatment on fecal Salmonella shedding and clinical signs. Methods: Longitudinal study and controlled trial. Methods: 246 equine colic patients. Methods: History and medical information were obtained from patient records. Fecal and environmental samples were submitted for aerobic bacterial culture for Salmonella enterica. Fifty-one patients were treated with a commercially available probiotic; 46 were treated with a placebo. Logistic regression was used to evaluate data. Results: Salmonella organisms were detected in feces from 23 (9%) patients at least once during hospitalization. Patients were more likely to shed Salmonella organisms if diarrhea was evident < or = 6 hours after hospitalization and duration of hospitalization exceeded 8 days (odds ratio [OR], 20.3), laminitis developed during hospitalization (OR, 12.0), results of nasogastric intubation were abnormal (OR, 4.9), leukopenia was evident < or =6 hours after hospitalization (OR, 4.6), or travel time to the teaching hospital exceeded 1 hour (OR, 3.5). Horses treated with the probiotic did not differ from control horses in regard to likelihood of fecal Salmonella shedding (OR, 1.5) or prevalence of clinical signs. Conclusions: Results suggest that certain risk factors are associated with fecal shedding of S enterica among equine patients hospitalized at a veterinary teaching hospital because of colic and that pathogen monitoring in patients and the hospital environment and use of barrier nursing precautions for equine colic patients are beneficial.
Publication Date: 2001-03-31 PubMed ID: 11280409DOI: 10.2460/javma.2001.218.740Google Scholar: Lookup
The Equine Research Bank provides access to a large database of publicly available scientific literature. Inclusion in the Research Bank does not imply endorsement of study methods or findings by Mad Barn.
  • Clinical Trial
  • Journal Article
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support
  • Non-U.S. Gov't

Summary

This research summary has been generated with artificial intelligence and may contain errors and omissions. Refer to the original study to confirm details provided. Submit correction.

This study examined the factors that might affect the occurrence of fecal Salmonella shedding in horses hospitalized for colic at a teaching veterinary hospital, and also assessed the impact of probiotics on this shedding and related clinical symptoms.

Objective and Methodology

  • The research was a longitudinal study and controlled trial involving 246 horses admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital due to colic.
  • The relevant history and medical information of each patient were obtained from their records. Sampling of feces and the environment was carried out for aerobic bacterial culture of Salmonella enterica.
  • Out of the entire lot, 51 patients were given a commercially available probiotic while 46 were treated with a placebo. Logistic regression was employed to analyze the data collected.

Results

  • Salmonella was found in excreta of 23 patients (9%) at least once during their stay at the hospital.
  • It was observed that the horses were more likely to shed Salmonella if they developed diarrhea within 6 hours of hospitalization and their stay extended beyond 8 days. Other factors increasing the chance included development of laminitis during hospitalization, abnormal nasogastric intubation results, leukopenia within 6 hours of hospitalization, and travel time to the hospital exceeding 1 hour.
  • Interestingly, the likelihood of horses shedding Salmonella in their feces or the prevalence of clinical signs did not differ amongst horses treated with the probiotic and those given the placebo.

Conclusion

  • Based on the results, the researchers concluded that some risk factors were associated with the fecal shedding of Salmonella enterica in equine colic patients admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital.
  • They also suggested that monitoring patients and the hospital environment for pathogens, alongside barrier nursing precautions for equine colic patients, would be beneficial practices.
  • However, the study also indicated that the use of probiotics did not significantly alter the probability of fecal Salmonella shedding or the presence of clinical signs in such horses.

Cite This Article

APA
Kim LM, Morley PS, Traub-Dargatz JL, Salman MD, Gentry-Weeks C. (2001). Factors associated with Salmonella shedding among equine colic patients at a veterinary teaching hospital. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 218(5), 740-748. https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.2001.218.740

Publication

ISSN: 0003-1488
NlmUniqueID: 7503067
Country: United States
Language: English
Volume: 218
Issue: 5
Pages: 740-748

Researcher Affiliations

Kim, L M
  • Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80523, USA.
Morley, P S
    Traub-Dargatz, J L
      Salman, M D
        Gentry-Weeks, C

          MeSH Terms

          • Animals
          • Colic / drug therapy
          • Colic / microbiology
          • Colic / veterinary
          • Cross Infection / drug therapy
          • Cross Infection / microbiology
          • Diarrhea / veterinary
          • Feces / microbiology
          • Horse Diseases / drug therapy
          • Horse Diseases / microbiology
          • Horses
          • Hospitalization
          • Hospitals, Animal
          • Logistic Models
          • Longitudinal Studies
          • Odds Ratio
          • Probiotics / therapeutic use
          • Risk Factors
          • Salmonella Infections, Animal / drug therapy
          • Salmonella Infections, Animal / microbiology
          • Salmonella enterica / classification
          • Salmonella enterica / isolation & purification

          Citations

          This article has been cited 18 times.
          1. Amory H, Cesarini C, De Maru00e9 L, Loublier C, Moula N, Detilleux J, Saulmont M, Garigliany MM, Lecoq L. Relationship between the Cycle Threshold Value (Ct) of a Salmonella spp. qPCR Performed on Feces and Clinical Signs and Outcome in Horses.. Microorganisms 2023 Jul 30;11(8).
          2. Lucassen A, Hankel J, Finkler-Schade C, Osbelt L, Strowig T, Visscher C, Schuberth HJ. Feeding a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Product (Olimond BB) Does Not Alter the Fecal Microbiota of Thoroughbred Racehorses.. Animals (Basel) 2022 Jun 8;12(12).
            doi: 10.3390/ani12121496pubmed: 35739833google scholar: lookup
          3. Lawson AL, Sherlock CE, Ireland JL, Mair TS. Equine nutrition in the post-operative colic: Survey of Diplomates of the American Colleges of Veterinary Internal Medicine and Veterinary Surgeons, and European Colleges of Equine Internal Medicine and Veterinary Surgeons.. Equine Vet J 2021 Sep;53(5):1015-1024.
            doi: 10.1111/evj.13381pubmed: 33174212google scholar: lookup
          4. Soza-Ossandu00f3n P, Rivera D, Tardone R, Riquelme-Neira R, Garcu00eda P, Hamilton-West C, Adell AD, Gonzu00e1lez-Rocha G, Moreno-Switt AI. Widespread Environmental Presence of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella in an Equine Veterinary Hospital That Received Local and International Horses.. Front Vet Sci 2020;7:346.
            doi: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00346pubmed: 32754619google scholar: lookup
          5. Burgess BA, Morley PS. Risk factors for shedding of Salmonella enterica among hospitalized large animals over a 10-year period in a veterinary teaching hospital.. J Vet Intern Med 2019 Sep;33(5):2239-2248.
            doi: 10.1111/jvim.15579pubmed: 31410902google scholar: lookup
          6. Stewart AS, Pratt-Phillips S, Gonzalez LM. Alterations in Intestinal Permeability: The Role of the "Leaky Gut" in Health and Disease.. J Equine Vet Sci 2017 May;52:10-22.
            doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2017.02.009pubmed: 31000910google scholar: lookup
          7. Manship AJ, Blikslager AT, Elfenbein JR. Disease features of equine coronavirus and enteric salmonellosis are similar in horses.. J Vet Intern Med 2019 Mar;33(2):912-917.
            doi: 10.1111/jvim.15386pubmed: 30632200google scholar: lookup
          8. Gelaw AK, Nthaba P, Matle I. Detection of Salmonella from animal sources in South Africa between 2007 and 2014.. J S Afr Vet Assoc 2018 Nov 7;89(0):e1-e10.
            doi: 10.4102/jsava.v89i0.1643pubmed: 30456978google scholar: lookup
          9. Burgess BA, Morley PS. Risk factors for veterinary hospital environmental contamination with Salmonella enterica.. Epidemiol Infect 2018 Jul;146(10):1282-1292.
            doi: 10.1017/S0950268818001164pubmed: 29739487google scholar: lookup
          10. Juffo GD, Bassuino DM, Gomes DC, Wurster F, Pissetti C, Pavarini SP, Driemeier D. Equine salmonellosis in southern Brazil.. Trop Anim Health Prod 2017 Mar;49(3):475-482.
            doi: 10.1007/s11250-016-1216-1pubmed: 28013440google scholar: lookup
          11. Schoster A, Staempfli HR, Abrahams M, Jalali M, Weese JS, Guardabassi L. Effect of a probiotic on prevention of diarrhea and Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens shedding in foals.. J Vet Intern Med 2015 May-Jun;29(3):925-31.
            doi: 10.1111/jvim.12584pubmed: 25903509google scholar: lookup
          12. Ishizaka S, Matsuda A, Amagai Y, Oida K, Jang H, Ueda Y, Takai M, Tanaka A, Matsuda H. Oral administration of fermented probiotics improves the condition of feces in adult horses.. J Equine Sci 2014;25(4):65-72.
            doi: 10.1294/jes.25.65pubmed: 25558179google scholar: lookup
          13. Traverse M, Aceto H. Environmental cleaning and disinfection.. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2015 Mar;45(2):299-330, vi.
            doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2014.11.011pubmed: 25555560google scholar: lookup
          14. Schoster A, Weese JS, Guardabassi L. Probiotic use in horses - what is the evidence for their clinical efficacy?. J Vet Intern Med 2014 Nov-Dec;28(6):1640-52.
            doi: 10.1111/jvim.12451pubmed: 25231539google scholar: lookup
          15. Carlson JC, Engeman RM, Hyatt DR, Gilliland RL, DeLiberto TJ, Clark L, Bodenchuk MJ, Linz GM. Efficacy of European starling control to reduce Salmonella enterica contamination in a concentrated animal feeding operation in the Texas panhandle.. BMC Vet Res 2011 Feb 16;7:9.
            doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-7-9pubmed: 21324202google scholar: lookup
          16. Hoelzer K, Moreno Switt AI, Wiedmann M. Animal contact as a source of human non-typhoidal salmonellosis.. Vet Res 2011 Feb 14;42(1):34.
            doi: 10.1186/1297-9716-42-34pubmed: 21324103google scholar: lookup
          17. Weese JS, Anderson ME, Lowe A, Monteith GJ. Preliminary investigation of the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG in horses: fecal recovery following oral administration and safety.. Can Vet J 2003 Apr;44(4):299-302.
            pubmed: 12715981
          18. Gentry-Weeks C, Hutcheson HJ, Kim LM, Bolte D, Traub-Dargatz J, Morley P, Powers B, Jessen M. Identification of two phylogenetically related organisms from feces by PCR for detection of Salmonella spp.. J Clin Microbiol 2002 Apr;40(4):1487-92.