Viruses2019; 12(1); 23; doi: 10.3390/v12010023

Viral Equine Encephalitis, a Growing Threat to the Horse Population in Europe?

Abstract: Neurological disorders represent an important sanitary and economic threat for the equine industry worldwide. Among nervous diseases, viral encephalitis is of growing concern, due to the emergence of arboviruses and to the high contagiosity of herpesvirus-infected horses. The nature, severity and duration of the clinical signs could be different depending on the etiological agent and its virulence. However, definite diagnosis generally requires the implementation of combinations of direct and/or indirect screening assays in specialized laboratories. The equine practitioner, involved in a mission of prevention and surveillance, plays an important role in the clinical diagnosis of viral encephalitis. The general management of the horse is essentially supportive, focused on controlling pain and inflammation within the central nervous system, preventing injuries and providing supportive care. Despite its high medical relevance and economic impact in the equine industry, vaccines are not always available and there is no specific antiviral therapy. In this review, the major virological, clinical and epidemiological features of the main neuropathogenic viruses inducing encephalitis in equids in Europe, including rabies virus (), Equid herpesviruses (), Borna disease virus () and West Nile virus (), as well as exotic viruses, will be presented.
Publication Date: 2019-12-24 PubMed ID: 31878129PubMed Central: PMC7019608DOI: 10.3390/v12010023Google Scholar: Lookup
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The researchers are investigating the increased concern of viral encephalitis, a neurological disorder, in horses due to rising numbers of arbovirus and highly contagious herpesvirus. The study includes the major characteristics, clinical symptoms, and epidemiology of various viruses causing encephalitis, such as rabies, Equid herpesviruses, Borna disease virus, and West Nile virus. However, there is currently no specific antiviral therapy, and vaccines are not always available.

Understanding Viral Encephalitis in Horses

  • The authors of this research article state that neurological disorders, particularly viral encephalitis, are posing a significant health and economic risk to the global equine industry. Viral encephalitis in horses is an increasing concern mainly due to the emergence of arboviruses and the high contagion level of herpesvirus-infected horses.
  • The symptoms’ nature, severity, and duration can vary widely depending upon the causative agent and its virulence. Confirming the diagnosis typically requires a mix of direct or indirect screening tests conducted in specialized labs.
  • The equine practitioner has a central role in diagnosing viral encephalitis given their interaction with horses. Interactions focused on prevention, regular surveillance, and noting any unusual behavior or symptoms.

The Management and Prevention of Equine Viral Encephalitis

  • According to the article, the general management of equine viral encephalitis is predominantly supportive. It’s mainly geared towards controlling pain, reducing inflammation in the CNS (central nervous system), preventing injuries, and offering palliative care.
  • As the disease has notable medical significance and affects the equine industry economically, the lack of specific antiviral therapy makes effective management all the more critical. Vaccines also aren’t always available, which further reinforces the importance of appropriate management and prevention strategies.

Analysis of Viruses Inducing Encephalitis in Europe

  • The review presents an in-depth analysis of the significant virological, clinical, and epidemiological features of the neuropathogenic viruses that cause encephalitis in horses. Some common examples include the rabies virus, Equid herpesviruses, Borna disease virus, and West Nile virus. It also provides a glimpse of different types of exotic viruses.
  • Through this comprehensive study of these viruses, the research attempts to increase understanding of the growing threat they present and highlight areas that may require more research to develop effective treatments and preventive tools.

Cite This Article

Lecollinet S, Pronost S, Coulpier M, Beck C, Gonzalez G, Leblond A, Tritz P. (2019). Viral Equine Encephalitis, a Growing Threat to the Horse Population in Europe? Viruses, 12(1), 23.


ISSN: 1999-4915
NlmUniqueID: 101509722
Country: Switzerland
Language: English
Volume: 12
Issue: 1
PII: 23

Researcher Affiliations

Lecollinet, Sylvie
  • UMR (Unitu00e9 Mixte de Recherche) 1161 Virologie, Anses (the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety), INRAE (French National Institute of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Research), Ecole Nationale Vu00e9tu00e9rinaire d'Alfort, Universitu00e9 Paris-Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France.
  • RESPE (Ru00e9seau d'u00e9pidu00e9mio-surveillance en pathologie u00e9quine), 14280 Saint-Contest, France.
Pronost, Stu00e9phane
  • RESPE (Ru00e9seau d'u00e9pidu00e9mio-surveillance en pathologie u00e9quine), 14280 Saint-Contest, France.
  • LABu00c9O, 14280 Saint-Contest, France.
Coulpier, Muriel
  • UMR (Unitu00e9 Mixte de Recherche) 1161 Virologie, Anses (the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety), INRAE (French National Institute of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Research), Ecole Nationale Vu00e9tu00e9rinaire d'Alfort, Universitu00e9 Paris-Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France.
Beck, Cu00e9cile
  • UMR (Unitu00e9 Mixte de Recherche) 1161 Virologie, Anses (the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety), INRAE (French National Institute of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Research), Ecole Nationale Vu00e9tu00e9rinaire d'Alfort, Universitu00e9 Paris-Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France.
  • RESPE (Ru00e9seau d'u00e9pidu00e9mio-surveillance en pathologie u00e9quine), 14280 Saint-Contest, France.
Gonzalez, Gaelle
  • UMR (Unitu00e9 Mixte de Recherche) 1161 Virologie, Anses (the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety), INRAE (French National Institute of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Research), Ecole Nationale Vu00e9tu00e9rinaire d'Alfort, Universitu00e9 Paris-Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France.
Leblond, Agnu00e8s
  • UMR EPIA (Epidu00e9miologie des Maladies Animales et Zoonotiques), INRAE, VetAgro Sup, Universitu00e9 de Lyon, 69280 Marcy L'Etoile, France.
Tritz, Pierre
  • RESPE (Ru00e9seau d'u00e9pidu00e9mio-surveillance en pathologie u00e9quine), 14280 Saint-Contest, France.
  • Clinique Vu00e9tu00e9rinaire, 19 rue de Cru00e9hange, 57380 Faulquemont, France.
  • AVEF (Association Vu00e9tu00e9rinaire Equine Franu00e7aise), Committee on Infectious Diseases, 75011 Paris, France.

MeSH Terms

  • Animals
  • Arboviruses / pathogenicity
  • Bornaviridae / pathogenicity
  • Encephalomyelitis, Equine / complications
  • Encephalomyelitis, Equine / epidemiology
  • Encephalomyelitis, Equine / veterinary
  • Europe / epidemiology
  • Herpesviridae / pathogenicity
  • Horse Diseases / epidemiology
  • Horse Diseases / virology
  • Horses
  • Humans
  • Rhabdoviridae / pathogenicity
  • Viruses / classification
  • Viruses / pathogenicity
  • West Nile virus / pathogenicity

Conflict of Interest Statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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