PloS one2019; 14(7); e0219307; doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0219307

Risk factors for acute abdominal pain (colic) in the adult horse: A scoping review of risk factors, and a systematic review of the effect of management-related changes.

Abstract: Acute abdominal pain (colic) is the most common reason for emergency veterinary treatment in the horse. Consolidation of data through a systematic review is important to inform evidence-based medicine and clinical guidelines, but there are currently no published systematic reviews on colic in the horse. The aim of this study was to identify, categorize and appraise the evidence on factors associated with increased risk of developing abdominal pain (colic) due to gastrointestinal disease in the adult horse. A scoping review was performed to identify and categorize evidence on all risk factors for colic. A systematic review of management-related risk factors was then performed following PRISMA guidelines. Both searches were conducted in Medline, CAB Abstracts and Web of Science databases, and publications were assessed against inclusion and exclusion criteria. For the scoping review, study and participant characteristics of included publications and key results were extracted and tabulated. For the systematic review, cohort, case-control or cross-sectional studies investigating acute abdominal pain in horses within two weeks of management changes were assessed. Study characteristics, participant characteristics and study results of included publications for the systematic review were extracted and tabulated. Included publications were appraised using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools for cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies. The scoping review search identified 3,756 publications. Fifty eight studies met final inclusion criteria, and 22 categories of risk factors were identified. These were grouped into three broad areas: horse-related factors, management-related factors and environment-related factors. The largest body of evidence related to management change. The systematic review of management change identified 410 publications: 14 met inclusion criteria for analysis. These consisted of one cohort, eight case-control and five cross-sectional studies. The studies were conducted between 1990-2008, and the majority of studies were located in the USA (8/14) or UK (3/14). The risk factors related to management change that were assessed were feed, carer, exercise, pasture, water and housing. The largest bodies of evidence for increased risk of colic associated with management change were changes in feed (5/14 publications) and recent change in housing (3/14). Most studies (8/14) did not meet the JBI criterion on confounding factors. There was marked heterogeneity of study methodologies and measures. This is the first study to use a combined scoping and systematic review to analyse evidence for modifiable risk factors for a common condition in the horse. It provides a comprehensive review that will be a key resource for researchers, veterinary practitioners and horse owners. It identified modifiable risk factors associated with an increased risk of colic which should be a key target for preventative health programmes. The findings from the critical appraisal were used to develop recommendations for future research to improve the quality of evidence-based veterinary medicine.
Publication Date: 2019-07-11 PubMed ID: 31295284PubMed Central: PMC6622499DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0219307Google Scholar: Lookup
The Equine Research Bank provides access to a large database of publicly available scientific literature. Inclusion in the Research Bank does not imply endorsement of study methods or findings by Mad Barn.
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support
  • Non-U.S. Gov't


This research summary has been generated with artificial intelligence and may contain errors and omissions. Refer to the original study to confirm details provided. Submit correction.

This research study provides a comprehensive review on the risk factors associated with acute abdominal pain (colic) in adult horses. After identifying and categorizing these factors, the researchers conducted a systematic review of the risk factors related to management changes. The study, the first of its kind, provides useful information for researchers, veterinary practitioners and horse owners alike.

About the Study

  • The researchers aimed to identify and categorize the evidence on factors associated with increased risk of developing abdominal pain (colic) due to gastrointestinal diseases in adult horses. They conducted a scoping review to identify and categorize evidence on all risk factors for colic.
  • Subsequently, a systematic review of management-related risk factors was performed. They fulfilled PRISMA guidelines, and all searches were conducted in Medline, CAB Abstracts, and Web of Science databases.

Scoping Review

  • The scoping review search yielded 3,756 publications. After meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 58 studies were appraised.
  • The researchers found 22 categories of risk factors which were grouped into three broad areas: horse-related factors, management-related factors, and environment-related factors.
  • Most of the evidence indicated that management change poses the highest risk.

Systematic Review

  • For the systematic review of management change, 410 publications were identified. Only 14 of these articles were included in the analysis, consisting of one cohort, eight case-control, and five cross-sectional studies.
  • The risk factors related to management change assessed were: feed, carer, exercise, pasture, water, and housing.
  • The study found that changes in feed and recent changes in housing comprised the largest bodies of evidence for increased risk of colic linked to management change.
  • However, the majority of the studies did not meet the Joanna Briggs Institute criterion on confounding factors, and significant heterogeneity was observed in the methodologies and measures employed in these studies.

Significance and Implications

  • This research is the first of its kind to use a combined scoping and systematic review to evaluate evidence for modifiable risk factors for colic, a common condition in horses.
  • The findings serve as a vital resource for all those working with horses—from researchers and veterinarians to horse owners.
  • It pinpoints modifiable risk factors associated with an increased risk of colic—information that could be crucial for preventative health programs for horses.
  • The findings were also utilized to develop recommendations for improving the quality of future research, thereby aiding the progress of evidence-based veterinary medicine.

Cite This Article

Curtis L, Burford JH, England GCW, Freeman SL. (2019). Risk factors for acute abdominal pain (colic) in the adult horse: A scoping review of risk factors, and a systematic review of the effect of management-related changes. PLoS One, 14(7), e0219307.


ISSN: 1932-6203
NlmUniqueID: 101285081
Country: United States
Language: English
Volume: 14
Issue: 7
Pages: e0219307
PII: e0219307

Researcher Affiliations

Curtis, Laila
  • School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonnington, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
Burford, John H
  • School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonnington, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
England, Gary C W
  • School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonnington, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
Freeman, Sarah L
  • School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonnington, Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.

MeSH Terms

  • Abdominal Pain / epidemiology
  • Abdominal Pain / physiopathology
  • Abdominal Pain / veterinary
  • Animals
  • Colic / epidemiology
  • Colic / physiopathology
  • Colic / veterinary
  • Horses / physiology
  • Risk Factors

Conflict of Interest Statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


This article includes 77 references
  1. Mehdi S, Mohammad V. A farm-based prospective study of equine colic incidence and associated risk factors. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 2006;26(4):171u20134. 10.1016/j.jevs.2006.02.008
  2. Curtis L, Burford JH, Thomas JS, Curran ML, Bayes TC, England GC, Freeman SL. Prospective study of the primary evaluation of 1016 horses with clinical signs of abdominal pain by veterinary practitioners, and the differentiation of critical and non-critical cases.. Acta Vet Scand 2015 Oct 6;57:69.
    doi: 10.1186/s13028-015-0160-9pmc: PMC4596518pubmed: 26444675google scholar: lookup
  3. Bowden A, England G.C.W., Burford J.H., Mair T. S., Furness W, Freeman S.L. Prevalence and outcome of conditions seen u2018out of hoursu2019 by first opinion equine clinicians at two practices over a three year period (2011u20132013). Equine Veterinary Journal. 2017;49:11 10.1111/evj.14_12732
    doi: 10.1111/evj.14_12732google scholar: lookup
  4. Traub-Dargatz JL, Kopral CA, Seitzinger AH, Garber LP, Forde K, White NA. Estimate of the national incidence of and operation-level risk factors for colic among horses in the United States, spring 1998 to spring 1999.. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001 Jul 1;219(1):67-71.
    doi: 10.2460/javma.2001.219.67pubmed: 11439773google scholar: lookup
  5. Tinker MK, White NA, Lessard P, Thatcher CD, Pelzer KD, Davis B, Carmel DK. Prospective study of equine colic incidence and mortality.. Equine Vet J 1997 Nov;29(6):448-53.
  6. Archer DC, Pinchbeck GK, French NP, Proudman CJ. Risk factors for epiploic foramen entrapment colic: an international study.. Equine Vet J 2008 May;40(3):224-30.
    doi: 10.2746/042516408X266079pubmed: 18267890google scholar: lookup
  7. Kaneene JB, Miller R, Ross WA, Gallagher K, Marteniuk J, Rook J. Risk factors for colic in the Michigan (USA) equine population.. Prev Vet Med 1997 Apr;30(1):23-36.
    doi: 10.1016/S0167-5877(96)01102-6pubmed: 9234409google scholar: lookup
  8. Cohen ND, Matejka PL, Honnas CM, Hooper RN. Case-control study of the association between various management factors and development of colic in horses. Texas Equine Colic Study Group.. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1995 Mar 1;206(5):667-73.
    pubmed: 7744689
  9. Archer DC, Pinchbeck GL, French NP, Proudman CJ. Risk factors for epiploic foramen entrapment colic in a UK horse population: a prospective case-control study.. Equine Vet J 2008 Jun;40(4):405-10.
    doi: 10.2746/042516408X312149pubmed: 18487105google scholar: lookup
  10. Husted L, Andersen MS, Borggaard OK, Houe H, Olsen SN. Risk factors for faecal sand excretion in Icelandic horses.. Equine Vet J 2005 Jul;37(4):351-5.
    doi: 10.2746/0425164054529373pubmed: 16028626google scholar: lookup
  11. Newton JR, Hedderson EJ, Adams VJ, McGorum BC, Proudman CJ, Wood JL. An epidemiological study of risk factors associated with the recurrence of equine grass sickness (dysautonomia) on previously affected premises.. Equine Vet J 2004 Mar;36(2):105-12.
    doi: 10.2746/0425164044868639pubmed: 15038431google scholar: lookup
  12. White NA. Colic prevalence, risk factors and prevention. Australian Equine Veterinarian. 2009;28(1):42u20139.
  13. Marr CM. On the question of colic: are answers beginning to emerge?. Equine Vet J 2012 Jul;44(4):384-6.
  14. The.Cochrane.Collaboration. The Cochrane Collaboration 2013 [cited 2013 10/06/2014]. Available from:
  15. Arksey H, O'Malley L. Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology. 2005;8(1):19u201332. 10.1080/1364557032000119616
  16. PRISMA Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses [cited 2019 6.6.2019].
  17. JBI. The Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers' Manual: 2015 edition / supplement. The University of Adelaide, Australia: 2015.
  18. Tricco AC, Lillie E, Zarin W, O'Brien K, Colquhoun H, Kastner M, Levac D, Ng C, Sharpe JP, Wilson K, Kenny M, Warren R, Wilson C, Stelfox HT, Straus SE. A scoping review on the conduct and reporting of scoping reviews.. BMC Med Res Methodol 2016 Feb 9;16:15.
    doi: 10.1186/s12874-016-0116-4pmc: PMC4746911pubmed: 26857112google scholar: lookup
  19. Hillyer MH, Taylor FG, French NP. A cross-sectional study of colic in horses on thoroughbred training premises in the British Isles in 1997.. Equine Vet J 2001 Jul;33(4):380-5.
    doi: 10.2746/042516401776249499pubmed: 11469771google scholar: lookup
  20. Mann CJ. Observational research methods. Research design II: cohort, cross sectional, and case-control studies.. Emerg Med J 2003 Jan;20(1):54-60.
    doi: 10.1136/emj.20.1.54pmc: PMC1726024pubmed: 12533370google scholar: lookup
  21. Pearce N. Classification of epidemiological study designs.. Int J Epidemiol 2012 Apr;41(2):393-7.
    doi: 10.1093/ije/dys049pubmed: 22493323google scholar: lookup
  22. Sargeant JM, O'Connor AM, Cullen JN, Makielski KM, Jones-Bitton A. What's in a Name? The Incorrect Use of Case Series as a Study Design Label in Studies Involving Dogs and Cats.. J Vet Intern Med 2017 Jul;31(4):1035-1042.
    doi: 10.1111/jvim.14741pmc: PMC5508368pubmed: 28544149google scholar: lookup
  23. Archer DC, Costain DA, Sherlock C. Idiopathic focal eosinophilic enteritis (IFEE), an emerging cause of abdominal pain in horses: the effect of age, time and geographical location on risk.. PLoS One 2014;9(12):e112072.
  24. Archer DC, Pinchbeck GL, Proudman CJ, Clough HE. Is equine colic seasonal? Novel application of a model based approach.. BMC Vet Res 2006 Aug 24;2:27.
    pmc: PMC1570133pubmed: 16930473doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-2-27google scholar: lookup
  25. Archer DC, Freeman DE, Doyle AJ, Proudman CJ, Edwards GB. Association between cribbing and entrapment of the small intestine in the epiploic foramen in horses: 68 cases (1991-2002).. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004 Feb 15;224(4):562-4.
    doi: 10.2460/javma.2004.224.562pubmed: 14989551google scholar: lookup
  26. Archer DC, Proudman CJ, Pinchbeck G, Smith JE, French NP, Edwards GB. Entrapment of the small intestine in the epiploic foramen in horses: a retrospective analysis of 71 cases recorded between 1991 and 2001.. Vet Rec 2004 Dec 18-25;155(25):793-7.
    pubmed: 15651546
  27. Back H, Nyman A, Osterman Lind E. The association between Anoplocephala perfoliata and colic in Swedish horses--a case control study.. Vet Parasitol 2013 Nov 8;197(3-4):580-5.
    doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.07.020pubmed: 23993633google scholar: lookup
  28. Bizhga S, Dova I, Postoli R, Kotorri S. Frequency of colic episodes in the horses in Albania. Albanian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2017;16(1):33u20137.
  29. Boswinkel M, Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan MM. Correlation between colic and antibody levels against Anoplocephala perfoliata in horses in The Netherlands.. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 2007 Jul 1;132(13):508-12.
    pubmed: 17649747
  30. Cohen ND, Toby E, Roussel AJ, Murphey EL, Wang N. Are feeding practices associated with duodenitis-proximal jejunitis?. Equine Vet J 2006 Nov;38(6):526-31.
    pubmed: 17124842doi: 10.2746/042516406x155975google scholar: lookup
  31. Cohen ND, Vontur CA, Rakestraw PC. Risk factors for enterolithiasis among horses in Texas.. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000 Jun 1;216(11):1787-94.
    doi: 10.2460/javma.2000.216.1787pubmed: 10844972google scholar: lookup
  32. Cohen ND, Gibbs PG, Woods AM. Dietary and other management factors associated with colic in horses.. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999 Jul 1;215(1):53-60.
    pubmed: 10397066
  33. Cohen ND, Peloso JG. Risk factors for history of previous colic and for chronic, intermittent colic in a population of horses.. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996 Mar 1;208(5):697-703.
    pubmed: 8617626
  34. Diakakis N, Tyrnenopoulou P. Correlation between equine colic and weather changes. Journal of the Hellenic Veterinary Medical Society. 2017;68(3):455u201366.
  35. Egenvall A, Penell J, Bonnett BN, Blix J, Pringle J. Demographics and costs of colic in Swedish horses.. J Vet Intern Med 2008 Jul-Aug;22(4):1029-37.
  36. Escalona EE, Okell CN, Archer DC. Prevalence of and risk factors for colic in horses that display crib-biting behaviour.. BMC Vet Res 2014;10 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S3.
    doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-10-s1-s3pmc: PMC4123051pubmed: 25238292google scholar: lookup
  37. Hassanpour A, Mousavi G, Tabrizi BA, editors. A retrospective study of equine colic risk factors in Tabriz area in Iran. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress in Animal Hygiene; 2007; Tartu, Estonia.
  38. Hassel DM, Aldridge BM, Drake CM, Snyder JR. Evaluation of dietary and management risk factors for enterolithiasis among horses in California.. Res Vet Sci 2008 Dec;85(3):476-80.
    doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2008.03.001pubmed: 18423503google scholar: lookup
  39. Hassel DM, Rakestraw PC, Gardner IA, Spier SJ, Snyder JR. Dietary risk factors and colonic pH and mineral concentrations in horses with enterolithiasis.. J Vet Intern Med 2004 May-Jun;18(3):346-9.
  40. Hillyer MH, Taylor FG, Proudman CJ, Edwards GB, Smith JE, French NP. Case control study to identify risk factors for simple colonic obstruction and distension colic in horses.. Equine Vet J 2002 Jul;34(5):455-63.
    pubmed: 12358047doi: 10.2746/042516402776117746google scholar: lookup
  41. Hudson JM, Cohen ND, Gibbs PG, Thompson JA. Feeding practices associated with colic in horses.. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001 Nov 15;219(10):1419-25.
    doi: 10.2460/javma.2001.219.1419pubmed: 11724182google scholar: lookup
  42. Kaya G, Sommerfeld-Stur I, Iben C. Risk factors of colic in horses in Austria.. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2009 Jun;93(3):339-49.
  43. Leblond A, Chalvet-Monfray K, Magnan C, Marchand S, Sabatier P, editors. Digestive parasitism as a risk factor for colic in horsesu2014Results of a multicentre case-control study conducted in European veterinary universities Proceedings of the Society of Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventative Medicine; 2002; Edinburgh: Society of Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventative Medicine.
  44. Little D, Blikslager AT. Factors associated with development of ileal impaction in horses with surgical colic: 78 cases (1986-2000).. Equine Vet J 2002 Jul;34(5):464-8.
    doi: 10.2746/042516402776117773pubmed: 12358048google scholar: lookup
  45. Malamed R, Berger J, Bain MJ, Kass P, Spier SJ. Retrospective evaluation of crib-biting and windsucking behaviours and owner-perceived behavioural traits as risk factors for colic in horses.. Equine Vet J 2010 Nov;42(8):686-92.
  46. Morris DD, Johnson K, Moore JN. Association of signalment and management factors with causes for colic in horses. Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners. 1993;38:441u201354.
  47. Morris DD, Moore JN, Ward S. Comparison of age, sex, breed, history and management in 229 horses with colic.. Equine Vet J Suppl 1989 Jun;(7):129-32.
  48. Olusa TAO. Do dental abnormalities predispose horses to colic? Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health. 2014;6(7):192u20137.
  49. Patipa LA, Sherlock CE, Witte SH, Pirie GD, Berghaus RD, Peroni JF. Risk factors for colic in equids hospitalized for ocular disease.. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012 Jun 15;240(12):1488-93.
    doi: 10.2460/javma.240.12.1488pubmed: 22657933google scholar: lookup
  50. Proudman CJ, Holdstock NB. Investigation of an outbreak of tapeworm-associated colic in a training yard.. Equine Vet J Suppl 2000 Jun;(32):37-41.
  51. Proudman CJ, French NP, Trees AJ. Tapeworm infection is a significant risk factor for spasmodic colic and ileal impaction colic in the horse.. Equine Vet J 1998 May;30(3):194-9.
  52. Proudman CJ, Edwards GB. Are tapeworms associated with equine colic? A case control study.. Equine Vet J 1993 May;25(3):224-6.
  53. Proudman CJ. A two year, prospective survey of equine colic in general practice.. Equine Vet J 1992 Mar;24(2):90-3.
  54. Reeves MJ, Salman MD, Smith G. Risk factors for equine acute abdominal disease (colic): Results from a multi-center case-control study. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 1996;26:285u2013301. 10.1016/0167-5877(95)00551-x WOS:A1996UN30900010.
  55. Reeves MJ, Gay JM, Hilbert BJ, Morris RS. Association of age, sex and breed factors in acute equine colic: a retrospective study of 320 cases admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital in the USA. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 1989;7(2):149u201360. 10.1016/0167-5877(89)90006-8.
  56. Salem SE, Scantlebury CE, Ezzat E, Abdelaal AM, Archer DC. Colic in a working horse population in Egypt: Prevalence and risk factors.. Equine Vet J 2017 Mar;49(2):201-206.
    doi: 10.1111/evj.12573pubmed: 27004591google scholar: lookup
  57. Scantlebury CE, Archer DC, Proudman CJ, Pinchbeck GL. Management and horse-level risk factors for recurrent colic in the UK general equine practice population.. Equine Vet J 2015 Mar;47(2):202-6.
    doi: 10.1111/evj.12276pubmed: 24735250google scholar: lookup
  58. Scantlebury CE, Archer DC, Proudman CJ, Pinchbeck GL. Recurrent colic in the horse: incidence and risk factors for recurrence in the general practice population.. Equine Vet J Suppl 2011 Aug;(39):81-8.
  59. Scherrer NM, Lassaline M, Richardson DW, Stefanovski D. Interval prevalence of and factors associated with colic in horses hospitalized for ocular or orthopedic disease.. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2016 Jul 1;249(1):90-5.
    doi: 10.2460/javma.249.1.90pubmed: 27308887google scholar: lookup
  60. Senior JM, Pinchbeck GL, Dugdale AH, Clegg PD. Retrospective study of the risk factors and prevalence of colic in horses after orthopaedic surgery.. Vet Rec 2004 Sep 11;155(11):321-5.
    doi: 10.1136/vr.155.11.321pubmed: 15470967google scholar: lookup
  61. Stancampiano L, Usai F, Marigo A, Rinnovati R. Are small strongyles (Cyathostominae) involved in horse colic occurrence?. Vet Parasitol 2017 Nov 30;247:33-36.
    doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2017.09.020pubmed: 29080761google scholar: lookup
  62. Suthers JM, Pinchbeck GL, Proudman CJ, Archer DC. Risk factors for large colon volvulus in the UK.. Equine Vet J 2013 Sep;45(5):558-63.
    doi: 10.1111/evj.12039pubmed: 23414461google scholar: lookup
  63. Tinker MK, White NA, Lessard P, Thatcher CD, Pelzer KD, Davis B, Carmel DK. Prospective study of equine colic risk factors.. Equine Vet J 1997 Nov;29(6):454-8.
  64. Trotz-Williams L, Physick-Sheard P, McFarlane H, Pearl DL, Martin SW, Peregrine AS. Occurrence of Anoplocephala perfoliata infection in horses in Ontario, Canada and associations with colic and management practices.. Vet Parasitol 2008 May 6;153(1-2):73-84.
    doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.01.016pubmed: 18339482google scholar: lookup
  65. Uhlinger C. Effects of three anthelmintic schedules on the incidence of colic in horses.. Equine Vet J 1990 Jul;22(4):251-4.
  66. Egan S, Brama P, McGrath D. Research trends in equine movement analysis, future opportunities and potential barriers in the digital age: A scoping review from 1978 to 2018.. Equine Vet J 2019 Nov;51(6):813-824.
    doi: 10.1111/evj.13076pubmed: 30659639google scholar: lookup
  67. Buczinski S, Ferraro S, Vandeweerd JM. Assessment of systematic reviews and meta-analyses available for bovine and equine veterinarians and quality of abstract reporting: A scoping review.. Prev Vet Med 2018 Dec 1;161:50-59.
  68. Rose WJ, Sargeant JM, Hanna WJB, Kelton D, Wolfe DM, Wisener LV. A scoping review of the evidence for efficacy of acupuncture in companion animals.. Anim Health Res Rev 2017 Dec;18(2):177-185.
    doi: 10.1017/S1466252317000068pubmed: 29224586google scholar: lookup
  69. Network E. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). www.equator-network.org2017 [6.6.2019.]. Available from:
  70. Shea BJ, Hamel C, Wells GA, Bouter LM, Kristjansson E, Grimshaw J, Henry DA, Boers M. AMSTAR is a reliable and valid measurement tool to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews.. J Clin Epidemiol 2009 Oct;62(10):1013-20.
  71. John JR, Ghassempour S, Girosi F, Atlantis E. The effectiveness of patient-centred medical home model versus standard primary care in chronic disease management: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials.. Syst Rev 2018 Nov 29;7(1):215.
    doi: 10.1186/s13643-018-0887-2pmc: PMC6267917pubmed: 30497523google scholar: lookup
  72. Ravat S PT, MSc, Olivier B PT, PhD, Gillion N PT, MSc, Lewis F PT, MSc. Laterality judgment performance between people with chronic pain and pain-free individuals. A systematic review and meta-analysis.. Physiother Theory Pract 2020 Dec;36(12):1279-1299.
    doi: 10.1080/09593985.2019.1570575pubmed: 30686110google scholar: lookup
  73. Merlin T, Weston A, Tooher R. Extending an evidence hierarchy to include topics other than treatment: revising the Australian 'levels of evidence'.. BMC Med Res Methodol 2009 Jun 11;9:34.
    pmc: PMC2700132pubmed: 19519887doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-9-34google scholar: lookup
  74. Grindlay DJ, Brennan ML, Dean RS. Searching the veterinary literature: a comparison of the coverage of veterinary journals by nine bibliographic databases.. J Vet Med Educ 2012 Winter;39(4):404-12.
    doi: 10.3138/jvme.1111.109Rpubmed: 23187034google scholar: lookup
  75. Toews LC. Compliance of systematic reviews in veterinary journals with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) literature search reporting guidelines.. J Med Libr Assoc 2017 Jul;105(3):233-239.
    doi: 10.5195/jmla.2017.246pmc: PMC5490700pubmed: 28670210google scholar: lookup
  76. Majdoubi J, Tmar M, Gargouri F. Using the Mesh Thesaurus to Index a Medical Article: Combination of Content, Structure and Semantics In: Velu00e1squez JD, Ru00edos SA, Howlett RJ, Jain LC, editors. Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 5711: Springer; Berlin Heidelberg; 2009. p. 277u201384.
  77. Bailey SR, Baillon ML, Rycroft AN, Harris PA, Elliott J. Identification of equine cecal bacteria producing amines in an in vitro model of carbohydrate overload.. Appl Environ Microbiol 2003 Apr;69(4):2087-93.


This article has been cited 18 times.
  1. Foury A, Mach N, Ruet A, Lansade L, Moisan MP. Transcriptomic signature related to poor welfare of sport horses.. Compr Psychoneuroendocrinol 2023 Nov;16:100201.
    doi: 10.1016/j.cpnec.2023.100201pubmed: 37655309google scholar: lookup
  2. Keener MM, Tumlin KI. The Triple-E Model: Advancing Equestrian Research with Perspectives from One Health.. Animals (Basel) 2023 Aug 16;13(16).
    doi: 10.3390/ani13162642pubmed: 37627432google scholar: lookup
  3. Stummer M, Frisch V, Glitz F, Hinney B, Spergser J, Kru00fccken J, Diekmann I, Dimmel K, Riedel C, Cavalleri JV, Ru00fcmenapf T, Joachim A, Lyrakis M, Auer A. Presence of Equine and Bovine Coronaviruses, Endoparasites, and Bacteria in Fecal Samples of Horses with Colic.. Pathogens 2023 Aug 15;12(8).
    doi: 10.3390/pathogens12081043pubmed: 37624003google scholar: lookup
  4. Osterman-Lind E, Hedberg Alm Y, Hassler H, Wilderoth H, Thorolfson H, Tydu00e9n E. Evaluation of Strategies to Reduce Equine Strongyle Infective Larvae on Pasture and Study of Larval Migration and Overwintering in a Nordic Climate.. Animals (Basel) 2022 Nov 10;12(22).
    doi: 10.3390/ani12223093pubmed: 36428321google scholar: lookup
  5. Straticu00f2 P, Varasano V, Palozzo A, Guerri G, Celani G, Revelant O, Petrizzi L. Retrospective Study on Risk Factors and Short-Term Outcome of Horses Referred for Colic from 2016 to 2022.. Vet Sci 2022 Oct 3;9(10).
    doi: 10.3390/vetsci9100545pubmed: 36288158google scholar: lookup
  6. Ekstrand C, Michanek P, Gehring R, Sundell A, Ku00e4llse A, Hedeland M, Stru00f6m L. Plasma atropine concentrations associated with decreased intestinal motility in horses.. Front Vet Sci 2022;9:951300.
    doi: 10.3389/fvets.2022.951300pubmed: 36118347google scholar: lookup
  7. Lara F, Castro R, Thomson P. Changes in the gut microbiome and colic in horses: Are they causes or consequences?. Open Vet J 2022 Mar-Apr;12(2):242-249.
    doi: 10.5455/OVJ.2022.v12.i2.12pubmed: 35603065google scholar: lookup
  8. Hellstrom EA, Ziegler AL, Blikslager AT. Postoperative Ileus: Comparative Pathophysiology and Future Therapies.. Front Vet Sci 2021;8:714800.
    doi: 10.3389/fvets.2021.714800pubmed: 34589533google scholar: lookup
  9. Du00e4nicke S, Saltzmann J, Liermann W, Glatter M, Hu00fcther L, Kersten S, Zeyner A, Feige K, Warnken T. Evaluation of Inner Exposure of Horses to Zearalenone (ZEN), Deoxynivalenol (DON) and Their Metabolites in Relation to Colic and Health-Related Clinical-Chemical Traits.. Toxins (Basel) 2021 Aug 23;13(8).
    doi: 10.3390/toxins13080588pubmed: 34437459google scholar: lookup
  10. Wild I, Freeman S, Robles D, Matamoros D, Ortiz M, Rodriguez J, Burford J. Owners' Knowledge and Approaches to Colic in Working Equids in Honduras.. Animals (Basel) 2021 Jul 13;11(7).
    doi: 10.3390/ani11072087pubmed: 34359215google scholar: lookup
  11. Nocera I, Bonelli F, Vitale V, Meucci V, Conte G, Jose-Cunilleras E, Gracia-Calvo LA, Sgorbini M. Evaluation of Plasmatic Procalcitonin in Healthy, and in Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) Negative or Positive Colic Horses.. Animals (Basel) 2021 Jul 6;11(7).
    doi: 10.3390/ani11072015pubmed: 34359143google scholar: lookup
  12. Collinet A, Grimm P, Julliand S, Julliand V. Sequential Modulation of the Equine Fecal Microbiota and Fibrolytic Capacity Following Two Consecutive Abrupt Dietary Changes and Bacterial Supplementation.. Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;11(5).
    doi: 10.3390/ani11051278pubmed: 33946811google scholar: lookup
  13. Muu00f1oz-Prieto A, Escribano D, Contreras-Aguilar MD, Horvatiu0107 A, Guillemin N, Jacobsen S, Ceru00f3n JJ, Mrljak V. Tandem Mass Tag (TMT) Proteomic Analysis of Saliva in Horses with Acute Abdominal Disease.. Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;11(5).
    doi: 10.3390/ani11051304pubmed: 33946607google scholar: lookup
  14. Lee S, Baker ME, Clinton M, Taylor SE. Use of Omics Data in Fracture Prediction; a Scoping and Systematic Review in Horses and Humans.. Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 30;11(4).
    doi: 10.3390/ani11040959pubmed: 33808497google scholar: lookup
  15. Williams JM, Randle H, Marlin D. COVID-19: Impact on United Kingdom Horse Owners.. Animals (Basel) 2020 Oct 13;10(10).
    doi: 10.3390/ani10101862pubmed: 33066021google scholar: lookup
  16. Le NPK, Gerdts V, Singh B. Integrin alpha-v/beta3 expression in equine lungs and jejunum.. Can J Vet Res 2020 Oct;84(4):245-251.
    pubmed: 33012972
  17. Yuwanati M, Gadbail A, Gondivkar S, Sarode SC, Dande R, Mhaske S, Tekade S, Pathak SK. A systematic scoping review on utility of cytomorphometry in the detection of dysplasia in oral potentially malignant disorders.. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2020 Oct-Dec;10(4):321-328.
    doi: 10.1016/j.jobcr.2020.06.016pubmed: 32714783google scholar: lookup
  18. Hedberg-Alm Y, Penell J, Riihimu00e4ki M, Osterman-Lind E, Nielsen MK, Tydu00e9n E. Parasite Occurrence and Parasite Management in Swedish Horses Presenting with Gastrointestinal Disease-A Case-Control Study.. Animals (Basel) 2020 Apr 7;10(4).
    doi: 10.3390/ani10040638pubmed: 32272754google scholar: lookup