Equine veterinary journal2022; 55(3); 446-455; doi: 10.1111/evj.13864

Prevalence of and risk factors associated with Salmonella shedding among equids presented to a veterinary teaching hospital for colic (2013-2018).

Abstract: Gastrointestinal disease has been associated with shedding of Salmonella with previous studies demonstrating that horses with colic have a higher risk of acquiring and shedding Salmonella organisms. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors associated with Salmonella shedding in a colic population at a referral clinic. Methods: Retrospective case-control study. Methods: For each colic case that was positive for Salmonella (n = 56), two colic cases (n = 112) that tested negative for Salmonella, were enrolled as controls. Associations between variables and Salmonella shedding were identified using logistic regression. Univariate and multivariable models were developed pertaining to (1) presenting clinicopathological data and (2) clinical variables that developed during hospitalisation. Results: Of the equids presenting with colic, 1585/1917 had a sample submitted for Salmonella testing. Of these, 56 were positive for Salmonella yielding a prevalence of 3.5%. Equids shedding Salmonella were more likely to present in July (odds ratio [OR] = 7.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.63-32.13; p = 0.009) and present with a history of fever (OR = 53.5; 95% CI = 2.57-1113.03; p = 0.01), increased lactate (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.14-2.29; p = 0.007) and/or neutropenia (OR = 0.79; 95% CI = 0.65-0.97; p = 0.02). Hospitalised equids shedding Salmonella were more likely to be febrile (OR = 4.8; 95% CI = 1.47-15.8; p = 0.01) and 10 times more likely to develop reflux (OR = 10.1; 95% CI = 1.67-61.43; p = 0.01) compared to colic controls. Conclusions: Retrospective nature of the study and bias inherent to the retrieval of data from medical records cannot be discounted. Classifying Salmonella status based on a single sample may have resulted in misclassification bias. Conclusions: The prevalence of Salmonella shedding in this colic population was low compared to earlier reports. Certain predictors such as the development of a fever or reflux in hospitalised colic cases were associated with Salmonella shedding and may help the clinician to promptly identify horses likely to shed; thus, helping institute effective use of barrier nursing precautions. 背景: 胃肠道疾病与沙门氏菌散播有关;先前的研究表明,有腹痛的马匹有更高罹患和散播沙门氏菌的风险。 目的: 本研究的目的是确定由于腹痛进入转诊医院马匹中,沙门氏菌散播的流行率和相关的危险因素。 研究设计: 回顾性病例对照研究 方法: 对每一例沙门氏菌阳性的腹痛病例(n = 56),选两例沙门氏菌阴性的腹痛病例(n = 112)作为对照。各种变量与沙门氏菌散播之间的联系使用逻辑回归确定。建立单变量和多变量模型研究以下联系:(1)临床病理数据,(2)住院期间产生的临床变量。 结果: 在1917匹发生腹痛的马匹的样本中,1585匹完成了沙门氏菌检测。其中56例沙门氏菌阳性,患病率为3.5%。马属动物散播沙门氏菌常出现在7月份(OR = 7.2; 95% CI = 1.63-32.13; p = 0.009)。常伴随发热史(OR = 53.5;95% CI = 2.57-1113.03;p = 0.01),乳酸升高(OR = 1.6;95% CI = 1.14-2.29;p = 0.007)和/或中性粒细胞减少(OR = 0.79;95% CI = 0.65 -0.97;p = 0.02)。住院马匹散播沙门氏菌的更可能发热(OR = 4.8;95% CI = 1.47 -15.8;p = 0.01),和阴性腹痛对照组相比,发生胃返流的可能性增加10倍(OR = 10.1;95% CI = 1.67 -61.43;p = 0.01)。 主要限制: 回顾性研究的性质和从医疗记录中检索数据的固有主观性局限。基于单一样本对沙门氏菌状态进行分类可能会导致分类偏差和不合理。 结论: 与早期报道相比,该设计中马匹的沙门氏菌散播流行率较低。某些预测因素,如发烧或返流在住院腹痛病例中与沙门氏菌散播相关,可以帮助临床医生及时识别可能散毒的马匹,从而帮助建立有效的屏障以及护理预防措施。.
Publication Date: 2022-08-09 PubMed ID: 35861656DOI: 10.1111/evj.13864Google Scholar: Lookup
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  • Journal Article

Summary

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The research article is a retrospective study that aimed to identify the prevalence of and risk factors associated with equids, particularly horses, shedding Salmonella while experiencing colic. The study revealed a lower prevalence rate compared to previous studies and identified certain clinical signs that could be useful in early detection of Salmonella shedding.

Objectives

The purpose of the study was to determine:

  • The prevalence of Salmonella shedding amongst horses who experience colic
  • What risk factors are associated with Salmonella shedding in these horses

Methods

The study used a retrospective case-control design wherein, for each colic case that tested positive for Salmonella, two that were negative were used as controls.

  • Out of the 1917 horses that presented with colic, 1585 were tested for Salmonella
  • 56 of the tested horses came out positive for Salmonella
  • Statistical methods, namely logistic regression, were used to identify associations between various variables and Salmonella shedding
  • Two types of models were used: one using clinicopathological data collected when the horse was presented, and the other using clinical variables that developed over the course of the horses’ hospitalisation

Results

The prevalence of Salmonella shedding was found to be 3.5%. The study identified several risk factors associated with Salmonella shedding such as:

  • Horses being more likely to shed Salmonella in July
  • Presence of fever and increased lactate levels
  • Neutropenia or decreased levels of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell

In addition, horses shedding Salmonella were more likely to have a fever or develop reflux.

Limitations

The limitations of the study included the retrospective nature of the study, potential bias in retrieving data from medical records, and the possibility of misclassification of Salmonella status because it was based on a single sample.

Conclusion

Despite a lower prevalence rate compared to previous studies, the research found that certain clinical signs such as fever or the development of reflux were associated with Salmonella shedding. This could potentially assist clinicians in promptly identifying horses that are likely to shed the bacteria, thereby helping institute effective nursing precautions.

Cite This Article

APA
Kilcoyne I, Magdesian KG, Guerra M, Dechant JE, Spier SJ, Kass PH. (2022). Prevalence of and risk factors associated with Salmonella shedding among equids presented to a veterinary teaching hospital for colic (2013-2018). Equine Vet J, 55(3), 446-455. https://doi.org/10.1111/evj.13864

Publication

ISSN: 2042-3306
NlmUniqueID: 0173320
Country: United States
Language: English
Volume: 55
Issue: 3
Pages: 446-455

Researcher Affiliations

Kilcoyne, Isabelle
  • Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, California, USA.
Magdesian, K Gary
  • Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, California, USA.
Guerra, Margherita
  • William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California-Davis, Davis, California, USA.
Dechant, Julie E
  • Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, California, USA.
Spier, Sharon J
  • Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, California, USA.
Kass, Philip H
  • Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, California, USA.

MeSH Terms

  • Animals
  • Horses
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Hospitals, Animal
  • Colic / veterinary
  • Prevalence
  • Hospitals, Teaching
  • Salmonella Infections, Animal / epidemiology
  • Horse Diseases / epidemiology
  • Horse Diseases / etiology
  • Feces
  • Salmonella
  • Risk Factors

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Citations

This article has been cited 1 times.
  1. Amory H, Cesarini C, De Maru00e9 L, Loublier C, Moula N, Detilleux J, Saulmont M, Garigliany MM, Lecoq L. Relationship between the Cycle Threshold Value (Ct) of a Salmonella spp. qPCR Performed on Feces and Clinical Signs and Outcome in Horses.. Microorganisms 2023 Jul 30;11(8).