Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association2009; 234(1); 108-119; doi: 10.2460/javma.234.1.108

Epidemiologic analysis of nosocomial Salmonella infections in hospitalized horses.

Abstract: To examine the relationship between abdominal surgery and nosocomial Salmonella infections and the relationship between high caseload in combination with abdominal surgery and nosocomial Salmonella infections in hospitalized horses with signs of gastrointestinal tract disease. Methods: 140 horses. Methods: Case-control study. Methods: To accomplish the first objective, 1 to 4 control horses were matched with each nosocomial case horse on the basis of admission date of a primary case horse. The frequency of abdominal surgery and other investigated exposure factors were compared between nosocomial case horses and control horses. For the second objective, 4 control horses were matched with each nosocomial case horse on the basis of year of admission. The frequency of high caseload (>or=26 inpatients), abdominal surgery, and other factors was compared between nosocomial case horses and control horses. Results: The odds of nosocomial Salmonella infection were 8 times as high (odds ratio=8.2; 95% confidence interval=1.11, 60.24) in horses that underwent abdominal surgery, compared with the odds for horses that did not undergo surgery. High caseload alone or in combination with abdominal surgery was not associated with increased risk of nosocomial Salmonella infection. Conclusions: Abdominal surgery was identified as a risk factor for nosocomial Salmonella infections in horses. Horses that undergo abdominal surgery require enhanced infection control and preventative care. Risk of nosocomial Salmonella infections may be reduced by implementation of biosecurity measures (such as the use of plastic boots, gloves, and footbaths) immediately after surgery.
Publication Date: 2009-01-06 PubMed ID: 19119974DOI: 10.2460/javma.234.1.108Google Scholar: Lookup
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  • Journal Article

Summary

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This research investigated how abdominal surgery and the number of inpatients affected the occurrence of hospital-acquired Salmonella infections in horses. It found that horses undergoing abdominal surgery were eight times more likely to contract Salmonella, however, high patient volume did not result in a higher risk. The authors concluded that better infection control after surgery could reduce this risk.

Methodology

  • The study used cases and controls, a common epidemiological method. For the first part of the study looking at the link between abdominal surgery and hospital-acquired Salmonella, each infected horse was matched with 1 to 4 horses who were admitted on the same date but did not get infected.
  • The frequency of abdominal surgery and other potential risk factors were compared between the infected horses and the matched controls.
  • For the second part of the study which involved looking at the combined effect of high caseload and abdominal surgery, each infected horse was matched with 4 uninfected horses admitted in the same year.
  • The frequency of high caseload (26 or more inpatient horses), abdominal surgery, and other factors were compared between infected horses and matched controls.

Findings

  • The odds of hospital-acquired Salmonella infection were 8 times higher in horses that underwent abdominal surgery, as compared with horses that did not. This was statistically significant with an odds ratio of 8.2 within a 95% confidence interval of 1.11 and 60.24.
  • High caseload, either on its own or combined with abdominal surgery, did not increase the risk of infection. This contradicts assumptions that higher patient volumes could put greater strain on infection control measures.

Implications

  • The results suggest that abdominal surgery is a risk factor for hospital-acquired Salmonella infections in horses. This indicates that infection control and preventive measures need to be enhanced in these cases.
  • While high caseloads didn’t increase infection risk, the authors suggested that reducing the risk of these nosocomial infections could still be achieved through stricter biosecurity measures after surgery such as the use of plastic boots, gloves, and footbaths.

Cite This Article

APA
Ekiri AB, MacKay RJ, Gaskin JM, Freeman DE, House AM, Giguu00e8re S, Troedsson MR, Schuman CD, von Chamier MM, Henry KM, Hernandez JA. (2009). Epidemiologic analysis of nosocomial Salmonella infections in hospitalized horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 234(1), 108-119. https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.234.1.108

Publication

ISSN: 0003-1488
NlmUniqueID: 7503067
Country: United States
Language: English
Volume: 234
Issue: 1
Pages: 108-119

Researcher Affiliations

Ekiri, Abel B
  • Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0136, USA.
MacKay, Robert J
    Gaskin, Jack M
      Freeman, David E
        House, Amanda M
          Giguu00e8re, Steeve
            Troedsson, Mats R
              Schuman, Crystal D
                von Chamier, Maria M
                  Henry, Katherine M
                    Hernandez, Jorge A

                      MeSH Terms

                      • Abdomen / surgery
                      • Animals
                      • Case-Control Studies
                      • Confidence Intervals
                      • Cross Infection / epidemiology
                      • Cross Infection / veterinary
                      • Female
                      • Horse Diseases / epidemiology
                      • Horse Diseases / transmission
                      • Horses
                      • Hospitals, Animal / statistics & numerical data
                      • Hygiene
                      • Male
                      • Odds Ratio
                      • Prevalence
                      • Risk Factors
                      • Salmonella / isolation & purification
                      • Salmonella Infections, Animal / epidemiology
                      • Salmonella Infections, Animal / transmission

                      Citations

                      This article has been cited 9 times.
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