Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. investigation in hospitalized horses and contacting personnel in a teaching veterinary hospital.
Journal of equine veterinary science    February 7, 2024   105031 doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2024.105031
Olivo G, Zakia LS, Ribeiro MG, da Cunha MLRS, Riboli DFM, Mello PL, Teixeira NB, de Arau00fajo CET, de Oliveira-Filho JP, Borges AS.Staphylococci are well-known opportunistic pathogens associated with suppurative diseases in humans and animals. Antimicrobial resistance is an emergent threat to humans and animals worldwide. This study investigated the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. (MRS) in hospitalized horses and contacting personnel (veterinarians and staff) and assessed possible interspecies transmission in a teaching veterinary hospital. Nasal swabs from horses (n = 131) and humans (n = 35) were collected. The microorganisms were identified by traditional biochemical tests and genotypic ...
Freezing Stallion Semen-What Do We Need to Focus on for the Future?
Veterinary sciences    February 2, 2024   Volume 11, Issue 2 65 doi: 10.3390/vetsci11020065
Al-Kass Z, Morrell JM.Artificial insemination (AI) is used frequently in the breeding of sport horses, apart from Thoroughbreds. Most AIs are carried out with cooled semen rather than frozen semen because of the difficulties in identifying a protocol that is suitable for freezing most ejaculates and the necessity to inseminate close to ovulation because of the short life of the thawed spermatozoa. More widespread use of frozen semen would improve biosecurity, allow greater choice of stallions, and offer more flexibility when managing deliveries of semen to the stud. It would even decrease the amount of antibiotics ...
‘I want to be the sort of owner that he wants me to be’: Rationales for biosecurity implementation among British horse owners.
Equine veterinary journal    January 4, 2024   doi: 10.1111/evj.14047
Spence KL, Rosanowski SM, Slater J, Cardwell JM.Horse owners play a critical role in mitigating the risk of pathogen spread between horses. However, little is known about how they view biosecurity and whether they experience barriers to the uptake of preventive measures. Objective: To explore horse owners' attitudes, perceptions, and experiences of biosecurity and identify how these factors shape horse owners' decisions for biosecurity implementation. Methods: Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Methods: Interviews were conducted with 23 horse owners across Great Britain. Participants were purposively selected to include tho...
Cross-Sectional Survey of Horse Owners to Assess Their Knowledge and Use of Biosecurity Practices for Equine Infectious Diseases in the United States.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    November 17, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 22 3550 doi: 10.3390/ani13223550
White N, Pelzel-McCluskey A.Horses are transported in the United States more than any other livestock species and co-mingle at various events; therefore, they are considered to be at an increased risk for infectious disease transmission. The fragmented movement of horses combined with numerous sites of co-mingling makes tracing the potential spread of a disease outbreak a necessary part of an infection control plan, both locally and nationally. The cross-movement of personnel with horses and the persistence of endemic diseases make biosecurity implementation an ongoing challenge. Although many of the risks for infection ...
Demonstration of reduced efficacy against cyathostomins without change in species composition after pyrantel embonate treatment in Swedish equine establishments.
International journal for parasitology. Drugs and drug resistance    November 14, 2023   Volume 23 78-86 doi: 10.1016/j.ijpddr.2023.11.003
Hedberg Alm Y, Halvarsson P, Martin F, Osterman-Lind E, Tu00f6rngren V, Tydu00e9n E.Consisting of approximately 50 different species, the cyathostomin parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses. Co-infection with several species is common, and large burdens can cause the fatal disease of larval cyathostominosis. Due to intense anthelmintic drug use, cyathostomin resistance has developed to all available anthelmintic drug groups. Resistance to the anthelmintic drug pyrantel (PYR) has been documented in over 90% of studies published over the past two decades. In Sweden, a study performed in the early 2000s only confirmed resistance in 4.5% of farms. Further, prescription-only a...
Detection of Selected Equine Respiratory Pathogens in Stall Samples Collected at a Multi-Week Equestrian Show during the Winter Months.
Viruses    October 11, 2023   Volume 15, Issue 10 2078 doi: 10.3390/v15102078
Lawton K, Runk D, Hankin S, Mendonsa E, Hull D, Barnum S, Pusterla N.The aim of this study was to use environmental sampling to determine the frequency of detection of selected equine respiratory viruses and bacteria in horses attending a multi-week equestrian show during the winter months. At four time points during showing, environmental sponge samples were collected from all stalls on the property and tested for the presence of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), EHV-2, EHV-4, equine influenza virus (EIV), equine rhinitis B virus (ERBV), ss. (), and ss. () using real-time PCR (PCR). Environmental sponges were collected from all 53 barns by using one sponge for...
Current and Future Advances in the Detection and Surveillance of Biosecurity-Relevant Equine Bacterial Diseases Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP).
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    August 18, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 16 2663 doi: 10.3390/ani13162663
Knox A, Zerna G, Beddoe T.Horses play an important role throughout the world, whether for work, culture, or leisure, providing an ever-growing significant contribution to the economy. The increase in importation and movement of horses, both nationally and internationally, has inevitably allowed for the global equine industry to grow. Subsequently, however, the potential for transmission of fatal equine bacterial diseases has also escalated, and devasting outbreaks continue to occur. To prevent such events, disease surveillance and diagnosis must be heightened throughout the industry. Current common, or "gold-standard" ...
Prevalence of Latent Equid Herpesvirus Type 1 in Submandibular Lymph Nodes of Horses in Virginia.
Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland)    June 7, 2023   Volume 12, Issue 6 813 doi: 10.3390/pathogens12060813
Saklou N, Pleasant S, Lahmers K, Funk R.Equine Herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) typically causes mild respiratory disease, but it can also cause late-term abortion, neonatal foal death and neurologic disease. Once a horse is infected, the virus concentrates to local lymphoid tissue, where it becomes latent. The virus can be reactivated during times of stress, which can lead to the initiation of devastating outbreaks. Understanding the carriage rate of latent EHV-1 in different geographic regions is essential for managing the disease. The objective of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of latent EHV-1 and compare the frequenc...
Efficacy of high-level disinfection of endoscopes contaminated with Streptococcus equi subspecies equi with 2 different disinfectants.
Journal of veterinary internal medicine    May 26, 2023   Volume 37, Issue 4 1561-1567 doi: 10.1111/jvim.16740
Nadruz V, Beard LA, Delph-Miller KM, Larson RL, Bai J, Chengappa MM.Prevention of spread of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) after an outbreak is best accomplished by endoscopic lavage of the guttural pouch, with samples tested by culture and real time, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Disinfection of endoscopes must eliminate bacteria and DNA to avoid false diagnosis of carrier horses of S. equi. Objective: Compare failure rates of disinfection of endoscopes contaminated with S. equi using 2 disinfectants (accelerated hydrogen peroxide [AHP] or ortho-phthalaldehyde [OPA]). The null hypothesis was that there would be no difference bet...
Detection of Chlamydia abortus in aborted chorioallantoises of horses from Western Canada. Ricard RM, Burton J, Chow-Lockerbie B, Wobeser B.Chlamydiae are reported to cause abortion in several species, however the association between sp. and equine abortions is poorly understood. A zoonotic transfer event of from aborted equine tissues in Australia has emphasized the need to better understand the prevalence of this pathogen in equine populations. The prevalence of chlamydia in equine abortions in North America has not been investigated thoroughly. We examined 99 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded placental samples submitted between 2009 and 2020 from equine abortions in Western Canada using chlamydia-specific 16S rRNA conventiona...
Internal audits as a tool to assess the compliance with biosecurity rules in a veterinary faculty.
Frontiers in veterinary science    March 2, 2023   Volume 10 960051 doi: 10.3389/fvets.2023.960051
Humblet MF, Saegerman C.The present paper proposes a tool to follow up the compliance of staff and students with biosecurity rules, as enforced in a veterinary faculty, i.e., animal clinics, teaching laboratories, dissection rooms, and educational pig herd and farm. Unassigned: Starting from a generic list of items gathered into several categories (personal dress and equipment, animal-related items, infrastructures, waste management, management of material/equipment and behavior), a checklist was created for each sector/activity mentioned above, based on the rules and procedures compiled in the Faculty biosecurity st...
Agreement of Temperatures Measured Using a Non-Contact Infrared Thermometer With a Rectal Digital Thermometer in Horses.
Journal of equine veterinary science    February 16, 2023   Volume 123 104243 doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2023.104243
Easterwood L, Cohen ND.Evaluating the body temperature of horses is an essential tool for monitoring horse health and biosecurity in groups of horses. Temperatures of horses and foals are determined most often using rectal thermometry. Rectal thermometry has limitations that include safety considerations for horses and humans. Thus, we investigated the agreement between a noncontact infrared thermometer (NCIT) and a rectal digital thermometer in 142 horses and 34 foals. For each horse and foal, measurements using the NCIT were collected from the forehead (n = 2) or neck (n = 1) and with a rectal digital thermome...
Hendra Virus: An Update on Diagnosis, Vaccination, and Biosecurity Protocols for Horses.
The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice    February 1, 2023   Volume 39, Issue 1 89-98 doi: 10.1016/j.cveq.2022.11.009
Wang X, Wise JC, Stewart AJ.Hendra virus (HeV) emerged as a zoonotic pathogen in the 1990s, causing low morbidity but high mortality in humans and horses. Pteropid bats are the natural reservoir of HeV and other important zoonotic viruses such as Nipah and Ebola viruses. Equivac HeV, manufactured by Zoetis (Parkville, Victoria, Australia), is the only commercially available vaccine for horses. There is no commercial vaccine for humans. The epidemiology, clinical features, pathology, diagnosis, management, and prevention of HeV will be reviewed.
Equine Rotaviral Diarrhea.
The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice    February 1, 2023   Volume 39, Issue 1 47-54 doi: 10.1016/j.cveq.2022.11.003
Kopper JJ.Equine rotavirus is one of the most common causes of infectious diarrhea in foals. Although the infection itself is self-limiting, the resulting diarrhea is due to multiple mechanisms and can be severe, requiring supportive care including fluid and electrolyte support. Prompt diagnosis is important for treatment and biosecurity decisions and can be achieved by several means. Prevention, while imperfect, currently relies on vaccination of pregnant mares before parturition, ingestion of adequate colostrum from vaccinated mares and biosecurity measures.
Salmonella in Horses.
The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice    February 1, 2023   Volume 39, Issue 1 25-35 doi: 10.1016/j.cveq.2022.11.005
Burgess BA.Managing Salmonella in equine populations can be challenging due to the epidemiology of this disease. In particular, due to the range of clinical outcomes, the occurrence of subclinical infections, and intermittent shedding. This greatly affects the ability to detect shedding and can lead to widespread environmental contamination and transmission. The veterinary profession can reduce the risk to stablemates and their caretakers, while meeting their ethical obligation, by appropriately managing these risks within animal populations and environments.
Infectious Causes of Equine Placentitis and Abortion.
The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice    February 1, 2023   Volume 39, Issue 1 73-88 doi: 10.1016/j.cveq.2022.11.001
Ruby RE, Janes JG.A variety of infectious agents including viral, bacterial, and fungal organisms can cause equine abortion and placentitis. Knowledge of normal anatomy and the common pattern distribution of different infectious agents will assist the practitioner in evaluating the fetus and/or placenta, collecting appropriate samples for further testing, and in some cases, forming a presumptive diagnosis. In all cases, it is recommended to confirm the diagnosis with molecular, serologic, or microbiological testing. If a causative agent can be identified, then appropriate biosecurity and vaccination measures ca...
Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella and Escherichia coli from equids sampled in the NAHMS 2015-16 equine study and association of management factors with resistance.
Preventive veterinary medicine    January 26, 2023   Volume 213 105857 doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2023.105857
Kohnen AB, Wiedenheft AM, Traub-Dargatz JL, Short DM, Cook KL, Lantz K, Morningstar-Shaw B, Lawrence JP, House S, Marshall KL, Rao S.Several studies have investigated antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli isolated from hospitalized horses, but studies conducted on community-based populations of equids are limited. The factors associated with AMR in these bacteria in the general horse population are not well understood. The primary objective of our study was to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella and describe antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella and E. coli from equids across the United States. The second objective was to identify associations between health management and biosecurity...
Implementation of biosecurity on equestrian premises: A narrative overview.
Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997)    January 13, 2023   Volume 292 105950 doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2023.105950
Crew CR, Brennan ML, Ireland JL.Biosecurity measures are designed to prevent the introduction and spread of pathogens, and play a vital role in the equine industry, controlling endemic diseases and reducing the threat of exotic disease incursion. Equestrian premises differ with respect to disease risks, biosecurity requirements and available facilities. This narrative review summarises reported frequency of implementation for selected biosecurity measures, as well as evidence relating to potential barriers to implementation of biosecurity on equestrian premises. Possible opportunities for improvement in the adoption of equin...
Hospital-acquired and zoonotic bacteria from a veterinary hospital and their associated antimicrobial-susceptibility profiles: A systematic review.
Frontiers in veterinary science    January 9, 2023   Volume 9 1087052 doi: 10.3389/fvets.2022.1087052
Sebola DC, Oguttu JW, Kock MM, Qekwana DN.Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and an economic burden due to costs associated with extended hospital stays. Furthermore, most pathogens associated with HAIs in veterinary medicine are zoonotic. This study used published data to identify organisms associated with HAIs and zoonosis in veterinary medicine. Furthermore, the study also investigated the antimicrobial-susceptibility profile of these bacterial organisms. Unassigned: A systematic literature review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Revie...
Effectiveness of Cleaning and Sanitation of Stable Environment and Riding Equipment Following Contamination With Streptococcus equi Subsp. equi.
Journal of equine veterinary science    December 29, 2022   Volume 121 104204 doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2022.104204
Ryden A, Fernstru00f6m LL, Svonni E, Riihimu00e4ki M.Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (S. equi) is transmitted via contact with infected horses or fomites such as equipment or surfaces of the stable environment. Effective cleaning and sanitation is essential to minimize risk of fomite-associated infections. This study assessed the effectiveness of cleaning and sanitation of experimentally S. equi contaminated materials and equipment found in stables. Wood, concrete, plastic, leather halters, leather gloves and polyester webbing halters were inoculated with a 24-hour culture S. equi laboratory strain. In addition, selected materials were inoculated...
Safety and efficacy of a feed additive consisting of a tincture derived from the roots of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (dong quai tincture) for use in poultry, horses, dogs and cats (FEFANA asbl).
EFSA journal. European Food Safety Authority    December 15, 2022   Volume 20, Issue 12 e07692 doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2022.7692
Bampidis V, Azimonti G, Bastos ML, Christensen H, Fau0161mon Durjava M, Kouba M, Lu00f3pez-Alonso M, Lu00f3pez Puente S, Marcon F, Mayo B....Following a request from the European Commission, EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of a tincture from the roots of (Oliv.) Diels (dong quai tincture) when used as a sensory additive in feed for horses, dogs and cats and in water for drinking for poultry species. The EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) concluded that the additive is safe for horses and dogs at the maximum proposed use level of 123 and 481 mg/kg complete feed, respectively. For cats, the calculated safe concentration is 184 mg/kg complete fe...
Willingness to adopt personal biosecurity strategies on thoroughbred breeding farms: Findings from a multi-site pilot study in Australia’s Hunter Valley.
Frontiers in veterinary science    December 15, 2022   Volume 9 1017452 doi: 10.3389/fvets.2022.1017452
Thompson K, Taylor J, Mendez D, Chicken C, Carrick J, Durrheim DN.There are almost 9,500 full-time employees in Australia's thoroughbred horse breeding industry. During foaling, they can be exposed to bodily fluids and mucous membranes which may present risks for zoonotic disease. These risks can be mitigated through personal biosecurity strategies. The aim of this study was to identify which personal biosecurity strategies were more or less likely to be adopted by workers. Seventeen participants representing 14 thoroughbred breeding farms and three equine veterinary practices in Australia's largest thoroughbred breeding region trialed up to 16 stakeholder-n...
Safety and efficacy of a feed additive consisting of a tincture derived from the fruit of Illicium verum Hook f. (star anise tincture) for use in all animal species (FEFANA asbl).
EFSA journal. European Food Safety Authority    December 15, 2022   Volume 20, Issue 12 e07695 doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2022.7695
Bampidis V, Azimonti G, Bastos ML, Christensen H, Fau0161mon Durjava M, Kouba M, Lu00f3pez-Alonso M, Lu00f3pez Puente S, Marcon F, Mayo B....Following a request from the European Commission, EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of a tincture from the fruit (pericarps and seeds) of Hook f. (star anise tincture) when used as a sensory feed additive for all animal species. The product is a ■■■■■ solution, with a dry matter content of approximately 1.86%. The product contained on average 0.2588% polyphenols (of which 0.0229% were flavonoids, including 0.0036% rutin), anethole (0.018%) and estragole (0.00039%). The Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)...
Enterococcus durans infection and diarrhea in Thoroughbred foals.
Journal of veterinary internal medicine    October 26, 2022   Volume 36, Issue 6 2224-2229 doi: 10.1111/jvim.16568
Williams NJ, Slovis NM, Browne NS, Troedsson MHT, Giguu0117re S, Hernandez JA.Diarrhea remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal foals, and correct identification of etiologic agents is essential for effective disease management. Objective: To examine the association between diarrhea and detection of Enterococcus durans or other enteropathogens in neonatal foals on 1 breeding farm in Kentucky, USA. Methods: Fifty-nine Thoroughbred foals and their broodmares. Methods: Prospective observational study. Study foals and broodmares were sampled and tested for E. durans and other enteropathogens during the first 10 days after foaling. The frequency of...
Nasal transmission of equine parvovirus hepatitis.
Journal of veterinary internal medicine    October 17, 2022   Volume 36, Issue 6 2238-2244 doi: 10.1111/jvim.16569
Tomlinson JE, Van de Walle GR.Equine parvovirus hepatitis (EqPV-H) is highly prevalent and causes subclinical to fatal hepatitis, which can occur in outbreaks. Whereas iatrogenic transmission is well documented, the mode of horizontal transmission is not known. The virus is shed in nasal, oral and fecal secretions, and PO transmission has been reported in a single horse. Objective: Investigate the efficiency of PO and nasal transmission of EqPV-H in a larger cohort. Methods: Prospective experimental transmission study. Eleven EqPV-H-negative horses were inoculated with 5 × 10 genome equivalents EqPV-H. Serum PCR and s...
Equine Influenza Virus: An Old Known Enemy in the Americas.
Vaccines    October 14, 2022   Volume 10, Issue 10 1718 doi: 10.3390/vaccines10101718
Gonzalez-Obando J, Forero JE, Zuluaga-Cabrera AM, Ruiz-Saenz J.Equine influenza is a highly contagious disease caused by the H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV), which is endemically distributed throughout the world. It infects equids, and interspecies transmission to dogs has been reported. The H3N8 Florida lineage, which is divided into clades 1 and 2, is the most representative lineage in the Americas. The EIV infects the respiratory system, affecting the ciliated epithelial cells and preventing the elimination of foreign bodies and substances. Certain factors related to the disease, such as an outdated vaccination plan, age, training, and close contact ...
Characterization of an outbreak of equine coronavirus infection in adult horses in Switzerland.
Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde    October 5, 2022   Volume 164, Issue 10 733-739 doi: 10.17236/sat00372
Fouchu00e9 N, Remy-Wohlfender F, Blau D, Franzen J, Gurtner C, Seuberlich T, Unger L, Gerber V.Outbreaks of equine coronavirus (ECoV) infections have been described in different parts of the world including Europe. The aim of this report was to describe clinical signs, diagnostic work-up and outcome of the first documented outbreak of ECoV in Switzerland in order to raise the awareness for the disease and its various clinical presentations. The outbreak occurred on a farm with 26 horses. Of these, seven horses developed clinical disease ranging from mild signs such as fever and anorexia to severe signs of acute colitis. One horse died due to severe endotoxemia and circulatory shock seco...
Batting below Average: Failure to Manage Fatal Zoonotic Diseases.
Journal of law and medicine    September 4, 2022   Volume 29, Issue 3 700-706 
O'Connor M.Zoonotic diseases are those which originate in animals but are transmitted to humans often through an intermediate host such as a wild animal. In Australia Hendra virus (HeV) is a disease of horses with occasional human fatalities and which is spread by the fruit bat. This article explores the lessons learnt from managing the Queensland outbreak of HeV in 1994. The legal framework for the notification and management of prohibited matter including zoonotic diseases in Queensland and New South Wales has been strengthened by provisions in the Biosecurity Act 2015 (NSW) which create strong penalti...
An epidemiological overview of the equine influenza epidemic in Great Britain during 2019.
Equine veterinary journal    August 31, 2022   Volume 55, Issue 1 153-164 doi: 10.1111/evj.13874
Whitlock F, Grewar J, Newton R.During 2019, an epidemic of equine influenza (EI) occurred in Europe. Objective: To describe the epidemiology of the 2019 EI epidemic within Great Britain (GB). Methods: Retrospective descriptive study of laboratory confirmed EI cases. Methods: Epidemiological data were obtained from veterinary surgeons referring samples for EI virus testing. Where available, data on confirmed cases and their wider resident population on EI-infected premises were collated and described. On a national level, spatial and temporal representations, consisting of choropleth maps and epidemic curves, described the s...
Frequency of Detection of Respiratory Pathogens in Nasal Secretions From Healthy Sport Horses Attending a Spring Show in California.
Journal of equine veterinary science    July 29, 2022   Volume 117 104089 doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2022.104089
Pusterla N, Sandler-Burtness E, Barnum S, Hill LA, Mendonsa E, Khan R, Portener D, Ridland H, Schumacher S.The objective of this study was to determine detection frequency of respiratory viruses (equine influenza virus [EIV], equine herpesvirus-1 [EHV-1], EHV-2, EHV-4, EHV-5, equine rhinitis A virus [ERAV], ERBV) and bacteria (Streptococcus equi ss. equi[S. equi], S. equi ss. zooepidemicus[S. zooepidemicus]) in 162 nasal secretions and 149 stall swabs from healthy sport horses attending a spring show in California. Nasal and stall swabs were collected at a single time point and analyzed using qPCR. The detection frequency of respiratory pathogens in nasal secretions was 38.9% for EHV-2, 36.4% for E...
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