Topic:Ethics

Detection of adeno-associated viral DNA in equine post-administration frozen blood and plasma samples after long-term storage.
Drug testing and analysis    September 6, 2023   doi: 10.1002/dta.3569
Maniego J, Pesko B, Habershon-Butcher J, Hincks P, Taylor P, Stewart G, Proudman C, Ryder E.Gene doping in horses is a threat to the fairness in sport and has serious implications for animal welfare. To investigate the effect of long-term storage on the detection of AAV in plasma and whole blood, samples from an administration study using an adeno-associated virus serotype 6 expressing green fluorescence protein (AAV6-GFP) were stored at -20°C for 8 months before analysis. The AAV vector was detected in stored plasma samples, following the same detection profile as the fresh plasma samples. The stored blood showed lower overall DNA detection but followed the same detection profile ...
How equestrians conceptualise horse welfare: Does it facilitate or hinder change?
Animal welfare (South Mimms, England)    September 1, 2023   Volume 32 e59 doi: 10.1017/awf.2023.79
Luke KL, Rawluk A, McAdie T, Smith BP, Warren-Smith AK.More than ever the welfare of horses in equestrian sport is in the spotlight. In response to this scrutiny, one peak body, the Federation Equestre Internationale (FEI) has created an Equine Ethics and Wellbeing Commission to protect their sport's longevity. However, for welfare-based strategies to be successful, the conceptualisation of horse welfare must align across various stakeholders, including the general public. The value-laden nature of welfare makes agreement on its definition, even among scientists, difficult. Given little is known about how equestrians conceptualise horse welfare, w...
Impact of Social Buffering and Restraint on Welfare Indicators during UK Commercial Horse Slaughter.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    July 12, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 14 doi: 10.3390/ani13142276
Fletcher KA, Limon G, Padalino B, Hall GK, Chancellor N, Grist A, Gibson TJ.Current legislation in the United Kingdom stipulates that horses should not be slaughtered within sight of one another. However, abattoir personnel anecdotally report that, for semi-feral horses unused to restraint, co-slaughtering alongside a conspecific could reduce distress through social buffering and improve safety, but there is a lack of evidence to support this. CCTV footage from an English abattoir was assessed retrospectively with welfare indicators from when horses entered the kill pen until they were killed. Of 256 horses analysed, 12% (32/256) were co-slaughtered (alongside a consp...
Social licence to operate: what’s next for horseracing?
The Veterinary record    July 7, 2023   Volume 193, Issue 1 18-22 doi: 10.1002/vetr.3233
Loeb J, Gray A.No abstract available
We have demonstrated the potential to make eventing safer: What will happen next?
Equine veterinary journal    June 29, 2023   Volume 55, Issue 5 723-726 doi: 10.1111/evj.13963
Bennet ED, Parkin T, Cameron-Whytock H.No abstract available
Belief in Animal Sentience and Affective Owner Attitudes are linked to Positive Working Equid Welfare across Six Countries.
Journal of applied animal welfare science : JAAWS    June 28, 2023   1-19 doi: 10.1080/10888705.2023.2228029
Haddy E, Burden F, Raw Z, Rodrigues JB, Zappi Bello JH, Brown J, Kaminski J, Proops L.Belief in animal sentience and the quality of human-animal relationships play a significant role in animal welfare. However, the link between an individual animal's welfare and the beliefs and emotional connection of the owner to the animal is understudied and focussed on single cultures, limiting generalisability. In this study, we explored potential links between owner attitude, beliefs in animal sentience, and working equid welfare across four continents. This study used a welfare assessment protocol alongside a questionnaire exploring owner attitudes to assess 378 participants across six c...
Between Leisure and Pressure-Veterinarians’ Attitudes towards the Care of Competition Horses in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    June 27, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 13 doi: 10.3390/ani13132126
Springer S, Mihatsch DI, Grimm H, Jenner F.Equine veterinarians face a range of challenges when attending competition horses. Athletic goals may significantly impact veterinary decision making, and the veterinarian's work can be complicated by reputational considerations and rival opinions during an assessment of whether a horse is "fit to compete". Using an online questionnaire, we found that the majority of German, Austrian and Swiss equine veterinarians (N = 172) surveyed agreed that the owners of competition horses are more likely than owners of leisure horses to approach them with clear treatment ideas, and that the former have hi...
Testing and Refining the Ethical Framework for the Use of Horses in Sport.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    May 31, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 11 1821 doi: 10.3390/ani13111821
Brown B, Cardwell JM, Verheyen KLP, Campbell MLH.In 2021, in response to an acknowledged need for universal, consistent ethics to guide decision making in the horse sport sector, Campbell published a theoretical ethical framework for the use of horses in competitive sport. The research reported here tested the applied usefulness of that theoretical ethical framework through stakeholder engagement in a three-round modified Delphi study and refined it to develop a practical decision-making tool which can be applied consistently across multiple equestrian disciplines. Stakeholders from a broad range of equestrian competitive disciplines partici...
Equids in Equine Assisted Services: A Scoping Review.
Journal of equine veterinary science    May 26, 2023   Volume 127 104825 doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2023.104825
Rankins EM, McKeever KH, Malinowski K.Equid welfare in equine assisted services (EAS) is an area that has received attention, but less attention than the documentation of human outcomes in response to EAS. To safeguard the well-being of equids and minimize human risk of injury, continued research on the effects of EAS programming and participants on equids needs to occur. The aims of this systematic scoping review were to identify the approaches taken for describing and understanding equids in EAS and the methods employed in evaluating equids' responses to EAS programming, participants, or both. Literature searches were performed ...
Competing interests at the heart of equine sports medicine ethics: A scoping review and thematic analysis.
Equine veterinary journal    May 10, 2023   doi: 10.1111/evj.13942
Allen K, Anderson L, King M, Mullan S.The ethics of using horses in sport is receiving increasing attention and media scrutiny. Sports medicine ethics is an important and well-established discipline within human medicine and biomedical ethics, which has, thus far, received little application to the equine veterinary field. Objective: The purpose of this scoping review was to explore the existing literature on equine sports medicine ethics, to understand the current concerns and issues, and to map areas for future research. Methods: Scoping review. Methods: Academic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, CAB abstracts) were searched to...
Mental Experiences in Wild Animals: Scientifically Validating Measurable Welfare Indicators in Free-Roaming Horses.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    April 28, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 9 1507 doi: 10.3390/ani13091507
Harvey AM, Beausoleil NJ, Ramp D, Mellor DJ.The mental experiences of animals are what characterises their welfare status. The Five Domains Model for assessing welfare aligns with the understanding that physical and mental states are linked. Following measurement of indicators within each of the four physical/functional Domains (1. Nutrition; 2. Physical environment; 3. Health; and 4. Behavioural interactions), the anticipated negative or positive affective consequences (mental experiences) are cautiously inferred and assigned to Domain 5. Those inferences derive credibility from validated knowledge of the underlying systems of physiolo...
Vet reprimanded for kicking horse.
The Veterinary record    March 18, 2023   Volume 192, Issue 6 233 doi: 10.1002/vetr.2843
Loeb J.No abstract available
Social License to Operate-Why Public Perception Matters for Horse Sport-Some Personal Reflections.
Journal of equine veterinary science    March 8, 2023   Volume 124 104266 doi: 10.1016/j.jevs.2023.104266
Heleski CR.What is a social license to operate (SLO)? Why would this concept matter for horse sport? In perhaps its simplest form, "social license to operate" is the public's perception of an industry or activity. It is a challenging concept to fully grasp because it does not arrive as a document given by a government agency. Yet it is every bit as important-perhaps more so. Does the industry in question operate with transparency? Does the public believe in the integrity of the stakeholders who are most likely to benefit from the activity? Do people believe there is legitimacy in the scrutinized industry...
Changing Hearts and Minds in the Equestrian World One Behaviour at a Time.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    February 19, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 4 748 doi: 10.3390/ani13040748
Wolframm IA, Douglas J, Pearson G.Equestrianism is currently facing a range of pressing challenges. These challenges, which are largely based on evolving attitudes to ethics and equine wellbeing, have consequences for the sport's social licence to operate. The factors that may have contributed to the current situation include overarching societal trends, specific aspects of the equestrian sector, and factors rooted in human nature. If equestrianism is to flourish, it is evident that much needs to change, not the least, human behaviour. To this end, using established behaviour change frameworks that have been scientifically val...
Impacts of Adiposity on Exercise Performance in Horses.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    February 14, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 4 666 doi: 10.3390/ani13040666
Pratt-Phillips S, Munjizun A.There is ample research describing the increased risk of health concerns associated with equine obesity, including insulin dysregulation and laminitis. For athletes, the negative effect of weight carriage is well documented in racing thoroughbreds (i.e., handicapping with weight) and rider weight has been shown to impact the workload of ridden horses and to some degree their gait and movement. In many groups of competitive and athletic horses and ponies, obesity is still relatively common. Therefore, these animals not only are at risk of metabolic disease, but also must perform at a higher wor...
Salmonella in Horses.
The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice    February 1, 2023   Volume 39, Issue 1 25-35 doi: 10.1016/j.cveq.2022.11.005
Burgess BA.Managing Salmonella in equine populations can be challenging due to the epidemiology of this disease. In particular, due to the range of clinical outcomes, the occurrence of subclinical infections, and intermittent shedding. This greatly affects the ability to detect shedding and can lead to widespread environmental contamination and transmission. The veterinary profession can reduce the risk to stablemates and their caretakers, while meeting their ethical obligation, by appropriately managing these risks within animal populations and environments.
Sustainability and the Thoroughbred Breeding and Racing Industries: An Enhanced One Welfare Perspective.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    January 31, 2023   Volume 13, Issue 3 490 doi: 10.3390/ani13030490
Stallones L, McManus P, McGreevy P.As society debates the use of animals in sport, entertainment, and leisure, there is an increasing focus on the welfare, social, and ecological impacts of such activities on the animals, human participants, people close to them, and the physical environment. This article introduces the "Enhanced One Welfare Framework" to reveal significant costs and benefits associated with Thoroughbred breeding and racing globally. In addition, relative to calls to ban horseracing and similar activities as part of sustainability approaches that focus chiefly on animals, the "Enhanced One Welfare Framework" is...
Life, Death, and Humanity in Veterinary Medicine: Is it Time to Embrace the Humanities in Veterinary Education?
Journal of veterinary medical education    January 13, 2023   e20220118 doi: 10.3138/jvme-2022-0118
Brosnahan MM.Medical humanities is a multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary field of study that has experienced explosive growth in the United States since the 1960s. Two key components of medical humanities include first, the use of literature, poetry, and visual arts in the education of medical students, and second, the representation or examination of medical culture by scholars in the humanities, arts, and social sciences such as literary and film creators, sociologists, and anthropologists. The American Association of Medical Colleges recently reported that as of 2018, approximately 94% of medical schoo...
Welfare concerns on production of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin – A comment.
The Canadian veterinary journal = La revue veterinaire canadienne    November 4, 2022   Volume 63, Issue 11 1089 
Grant C.No abstract available
[Heart rate and faecal cortisol metabolites measurements in horses at the Sechseläuten in Zurich].
Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde    November 4, 2022   Volume 164, Issue 11 768-776 doi: 10.17236/sat00373
Novotny EN, Hu00e4ssig M, Palme R, Fu00fcrst AE, Weishaupt MA.The Zurich's Sechseläuten is a traditional festival of the Zurich guilds, in which around 500 horses take part. After a parade through the old town of Zurich, the riders gather at a big square to canter around a burning woodpile topped with an exploding effigy (the «Böögg»). The level of stress experienced by the horses partaking in this event is subjected to increasing scrutiny. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress load of the horses participating in the Sechseläuten procession more objectively by measuring heart rate and faecal cortisol metabolites. Twenty-three horse-rider...
Moving toward Fear-Free Husbandry and Veterinary Care for Horses.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    October 24, 2022   Volume 12, Issue 21 2907 doi: 10.3390/ani12212907
Carroll SL, Sykes BW, Mills PC.Husbandry and veterinary procedures have the potential to generate fear and stress in animals. In horses, the associated responses can pose a significant safety risk to the human personnel involved in the procedure, as well as to the animal itself. Traditionally, physical restraint, punishment, and/or threat of an aversive, have been the most common strategies used to achieve compliance from the horse. However, from a welfare perspective, this is less than ideal. This approach also has the potential for creating a more dangerous response from the horse in future similar situations. When caring...
Noseband Fit: Measurements and Perceptions of Canadian Equestrians.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    October 6, 2022   Volume 12, Issue 19 2685 doi: 10.3390/ani12192685
Merkies K, Copelin C, Small N, Young J.Recent concerns regarding horse welfare during competition has highlighted the occurrence of overtightened nosebands on competition horses. Current rules are often vague—e.g., “nosebands may never be so tightly fixed as to harm the horse.” To investigate the need and acceptance prior to any rule changes Equestrian Canada (EC) launched a pilot noseband measuring project. Nineteen officiating stewards measured noseband fit using the ISES taper gauge (TG) at 32 equestrian events of various disciplines in 2021. Additionally, stakeholder surveys collected data from 1528 EC members and 27 stew...
To improve welfare in the equine species should we place greater emphasis on understanding our own?
Equine veterinary journal    October 6, 2022   Volume 54, Issue 6 1001-1004 doi: 10.1111/evj.13869
Furtado T, Rendle D.No abstract available
Fertility Control and the Welfare of Free-Roaming Horses and Burros on U.S. Public Lands: The Need for an Ethical Framing.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    October 3, 2022   Volume 12, Issue 19 2656 doi: 10.3390/ani12192656
Rutberg AT, Turner JW, Herman K.To be effective and publicly acceptable, management of free-roaming horses and burros in the United States and elsewhere needs a consistent ethical framing of the animals and the land they occupy. In the U.S., the two laws that largely govern wild horse and burro management, the 1971 Wild Free-Roaming Horse and Burro Act and the 1976 Federal Land Policy and Management Act ("FLPMA"), rest on conflicting foundations, the former based on an ethic of care and the latter on largely utilitarian principles. These conflicts specifically fuel debates over the selection of appropriate fertility control ...
‘Investing in people is key for our profession’.
The Veterinary record    September 24, 2022   Volume 191, Issue 6 244-246 doi: 10.1002/vetr.2253
Morley M, Loeb J.As Malcolm Morley becomes BVA president for 2022/23, Josh Loeb chats to him about his love for horses and why the veterinary profession is actually a human-centred business.
Autopsies are required for all racehorses at most U.S. racetracks. Stover S, Uzal FA.No abstract available
Social Licence to Operate: What Can Equestrian Sports Learn from Other Industries?
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    August 5, 2022   Volume 12, Issue 15 1987 doi: 10.3390/ani12151987
Douglas J, Owers R, Campbell MLH.The concept of 'social licence to operate' (SLO) is relevant to all animal-use activities. An SLO is an intangible, implicit agreement between the public and an industry/group. Its existence allows that industry/group to pursue its activities with minimal formalised restrictions because such activities have widespread societal approval. In contrast, the imposition of legal restrictions-or even an outright ban-reflect qualified or lack of public support for an activity. This review discusses current threats to equestrianism's SLO and suggests actions that those across the equine sector need to ...
Quality of Life within Horse Welfare Assessment Tools: Informing Decisions for Chronically Ill and Geriatric Horses.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    July 17, 2022   Volume 12, Issue 14 1822 doi: 10.3390/ani12141822
Long M, Du00fcrnberger C, Jenner F, Kelemen Z, Auer U, Grimm H.Equine Quality of Life (QoL) is an important concern in decision making in veterinary medicine and is especially relevant for chronically ill or geriatric horses towards the end of their lives. To our knowledge, there is no currently available QoL assessment tool for chronically ill or geriatric horses that assesses equine QoL defined as the horse's evaluation of their life. However, tools exist to assess equine welfare in different contexts. Hence, the aims of this study were to analyse how equine welfare, QoL, well-being and happiness assessment tools label, define and operationalise the con...
Scoping review of end-of-life decision-making models used in dogs, cats and equids.
The Veterinary record    June 15, 2022   Volume 191, Issue 4 e1730 doi: 10.1002/vetr.1730
Cameron A, Pollock K, Wilson E, Burford J, England G, Freeman S.End-of-life decisions for companion animals can be stressful for veterinarians and owners, and when delayed result in poor animal welfare. Delayed euthanasia has been identified as a particularly prominent issue for horses. This scoping review aimed to identify the available literature on veterinary decision-making models, which can support end-of-life planning. A protocol was preregistered, and a structured literature search was performed on six electronic databases. Publications were reviewed against specifically developed eligibility criteria. Data from original studies and narrative-type r...
Can Humans Discriminate Horse ‘Fear’ Chemosignals from Control Chemosignals? Comment on Sabiniewicz et al. A Preliminary Investigation of Interspecific Chemosensory Communication of Emotions: Can Humans (Homo sapiens) Recognise Fear- and Non-Fear Body Odour from Horses (Equus ferus caballus). Animals 2021, 11, 3499.
Animals : an open access journal from MDPI    June 8, 2022   Volume 12, Issue 12 1489 doi: 10.3390/ani12121489
Semin GR, Gomes N, D'Aniello B, Sabiniewicz A.We illustrate the problematic nature of different assumptions guiding the examination of whether humans can detect the source of fear chemosignals (i.e., body odors) emitted by horses-a research question examined in an article recently published in . A central issue is that the formulation of the question itself contains the answer to it. In this paper, we parse the problematic assumptions on which the analysis and methodology rely, leading to conclusions that are difficult to support. These assumptions constitute examples of methodological problems that should be avoided in research with anim...
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